Download the complete book in PDF: Commentary of Qasidah Burdah (Complete)
رَاعَتْ قُلُوْبَ الْعِدٰى اَنْبَآءُ بِعْثَتِهٖ
كَنَبْاَةٍ اَجْفَلَتْ غُفْلًامِّنَ الْغَنَمٖ
RAA’AT QULOOBAL IDAH ANBA’UH BIH’SATIHI
KANAB’ATIN AJFALAT GHUFLAM MINAL GHANAMI
The News of the Arrival, of the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) struck terror in the hearts of the unbelievers, just as, at the roaring of the tiger, unalert sheep and goats are terrified.
Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) said: I was assisted so much with Inspiration, like the distance of one, who travels for 1-2 months.
This Hadith, Allama specifically shows in this Couplet, that the Holy Arrival of the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) struck so much terror in the hearts of the enemies. Just like when the Tiger roars, the sheep become terrified and run away.
مَازَالَ يَلْقَاهُمٗ فَیْ كُلِّ مُعْتَرَكٍ
حَتّٰى حَكَوْا بِالْقَنَا لَحْمًا عَلٰى وَضَمٖ
MAA ZAALA YALQAAHUM FEE KULLI MUH’TARAKIN
HATTA HAKOW BILQANA LAH’MAN ALAH WADHAMI
Do not inquire about the condition of the enemy in the arena of war. Lances and spears, just like meat on the chopping board severed their bodies.
Allama Kharpoti (May Allah shower mercy upon him) states that the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) used to confront the enemies in the Battlefield. Each time that He participated, Islam was Victorious. The Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) participated in 19 Battles.
He Personally took part in 9 Battles. Those 9 Battles were:
- Battle of Badr.
- Battle of Uhad.
- Battle of Mareesa.
- Battle of Trench.
- Battle of Bani Quraiza.
- Battle of Khaibar.
- Battle of Hunain.
- Battle of Taif.
- Victory of Makkah.
Insha-Allah! Each Battle, we will discuss, in the following chapters.
The Word Haku means Incident or Story.
وَدُّوْ الْفِرَارَ فَكَادُوْا يَغْبِطُوْنَ بِهٖ
اَشْلَآءَ شَالَتْ مَعَ الْعِقْبَانِ وَالرَّحَمٖ
WADDUL FIRAARA FAKAADU YAGHBITOONA BIHI
ASHLA’AH SHAALAT MA’AL IQBAANI WAR RAKHAMI
They were so terrified that they ran away from the Battlefield. The enemies did not care, even if eagles and vultures devoured them.
Yaghbitoon comes from the word Ghabta. It means the desire, which one hopes to attain it without it declining. Due to envy and hatred, one has the desire to attain this gift, without it declining to strangers. The Disbelievers used to break their rows, due to the spears and lances of the Mujahideen, but they could not find an outlet. They still preferred to run, whenever they had a chance. They preferred being devoured by the eagles and vultures, rather than getting killed by the Muslims.
تَمْضِىْ اللَّيَالِىْ وَ لَا يَدْرُوْنَ عِدَّتَهَا
مَالَمْ تَكُنْ مِّنْ لَّياَلِىْ الْاَشْهُرِ الْحُرُمٖ
TAMDHIL LAYAALI WALAH YADROONA IDDATAHA
MAALAM TAKUM MIL LAYAALIL ASH HURIL HURUMI
All those nights of the unbelievers were spent in terror and fear, except the night of those months, which were considered Sacred or when War was forbidden.
In the Months of Prohibition, War was prohibited. Even now, the Law though has been changed, it is better that during these days, and no war should take place.
Allama points out this fact and says that during those nights, the enemies used to live in fear, besides the nights of the Months of Prohibition. The Months of Prohibition were Muharram – Rajab – Shabaan and Ramadaan. When Ramadaan used to come, they used to feel safe, that now there was no War.
Some have stated that the Months of Prohibition are Rajab, Zilqad, Zilhaj and Muharram. The Holy Quran has also states that one must respect these Months.
Allama Kharpoti (May Allah shower mercy upon him) shows the reasons why these 12 Months were called by these Names.
- Muharram is called by this name because of the Honour of Fighting. Some say that it was in this Month, that Paradise was made Haraam for the Shaytaan. The tenth day is known as
- Safar is called by this name because in this Month, the camels become thin. Some say that in this Month one gets fever evils, etc. a lot and their faces turn yellow.
- Rabi-ul-Awwal – Rabeeh means Spring. During the era of Ignorance, this month was called Our Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) was born on the 12th of this Month; on this same day was his Wisaal.
- Rabi-us-Saani– – During the era of Ignorance, it was called
- Jamaadil Awwal – During those days, it was called
- Jamaadus Saani – It was called
- Rajab – It used to be called Asam because in this Month, you could not hear the sound of swords, or ammunition. Then due to Respect, the name was kept Rajab. The 27th night is known as Lailatul Meraaj. The Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) said: In this Month of Rajab, My Ummat will not be punished.
- Shabaan – During the period of Ignorance, this month was called Ajlaan. Later it was called Shabaan because in this month, the watercourses used to dry up. In Shariat it is called Shabaan because Mountains of Good Deeds come out. The 15th night of this month is called Shabeh Baraat.
- Ramadaan is called by this name because due to its heat, the sins get burnt. In this month the crops grow ripe. Ramzul Haar means extreme heat. The 27th Night is known as Lailatul Qadr.
- Shawaal was known by the name Ahzal. They used to work out the days of the pregnant camel, from this month.
- Zilqad – It was known as Rannaha because in this month, the Arabs and enemies, used to free the captives and live in their homes.
- Zilhaj was the month of
كَاَ نَّمَا الدِّيْنُ ضَيْفٌ حَلَّ سَاحَتَهُمْ
بِكُلِّ قَرْمٍ اِلٰى لَحْمِ الْعِدٰى قَرِمٖ
KA ANNAMAD DEENU DHAYFUN HALLA SAAHATAHUM
BEKULLI QARMIN ILAH LAH’MIL IDAA QARIMI
The Muslim Army were like guests, in their (enemy’s) open yard and the hunger of the brave Muslim Soldiers could only be satisfied through the flesh and blood (of the enemy).
Islamic Religion was like a house with Guides and Leaders of the Quraish Tribes. The Sacred Companions, who descended in the courtyards of the enemies, were thirsty for the enemy’s flesh and blood.
The Brave Soldiers of Islam did not have to strive hard. The effect of the Inspirations, Ibaadat of the Lord, for the Victory of Islam, the enemies placed their necks forward, to be slaughtered.
If the word Saahatum is taken as a personal pronoun, then it’s meaning will be, the Brave Soldiers of Islam were like guests, in the open courtyard of the enemies. They entertained the host and quenched their thirst, by slaughtering the enemies.The enemies were so dumb-founded that they could not calculate the days and nights.
Mowla Ya Swalli Wa Sallim Daa’iman Abadan
Alah Habeebika Khayril Khalqi Kullihimi
يَجُرُّ بَحْرَ خَمِيْسٍ فَوْقَ سَابِحَةٍ
تَرْمِىْ بِمَوْجٍ مِّنَ الْاَبْطَالِ مُلْتَطِمٖ
YAJURRU BAH’RA KHAMEESIN FOWQA SAABIHATIN
YARMEE BEMOWJIM MINAL ABTAALI MULTATIMI
The Army of Muslim Soldiers, on galloping charging horses, on the Battlefield were like a great surging ocean, fighting the enemies with swords and arrows.
The Brave Soldiers of Islam were so restless to fight the enemies, like the surging waves of the ocean that follow each other. Each wave desired to be higher than the other wave.The condition of the Brave Soldiers was in the same manner. Everyone wanted to be in the front row, so that, they could confront the enemies and destroy them.The Army was so inspired by the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) as their Leader, that they were running into the Battlefield, like the waves, one over the other, to destroy the enemy. The manner in which the spears and arrows poured that the enemies lost their senses and tried to flee. The whole details of these incidents will be discussed later.
مِنْ كُلِّ مُنْتَدِبٍ لِّلّٰهِ مُحْتَسِبٍ
يَّسْطُوْا بِمُسْتَاْصِلٍ لِّلْكُفْرِ مُصْطَلِمٖ
MIN KULLI MUNTADIBIN LILLAHI MUH’TASIBIN
YASTU BIMUSTA’SILIL LIL KUFRI MUSTALIMI
The Lovers of the Message of Truth (Islam) fought to destroy the roots of disbelief, hoping to gain rewards from the Almighty Allah.
In this Couplet, the reasons why the Muslim Soldiers fought so bravely were given. The reasons were: They were fighting only, for the Pleasure of Allah. They were obeying the Commands of Allah and fighting for the Truth.
Regarding this, it has been related in a Tradition that whoever comes out for War, for Allah’s sake only, and not with the intention of conquering countries or gaining respect, then Allah gives guarantee that He has forgiven him.
He will reward Him for fighting the enemies and being firm on the Straight Path and make it compulsory, that he will enter Paradise and be granted Hoors.
حَتّٰى غَدَتْ مِلَّۃُ الْاِسْلَامِ وَهِىَ بِهِمْ
مِّنْ مبَعْدِ غُرْبَتِهَا مَوْصُوْلَةَ الرَّحِمٖ
HATTA GHADAT MILLATUL ISLAMI WAHYA BIHIM
IM BAH’DI GHURBATIHA MOWSOOLATAR RAHIMI
Islam took roots through these courageous efforts. Those who were separated, from their relatives were reunited with them and their poverty vanished.
The Laws of Islam, friendship and unity are definitely reliable because this was from the special method, that the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) taught and it was called Deen (Religion). Whatever came via narrations or Laws, it was approved and accepted by the public is called Millat.
To accumulate together and keep it with you is called Naamoos.
Since the beginning of Islam, was spent in poverty, Allama points in this direction, towards this Hadith and says: Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) said: “The beginning of Islam was in poverty and the ending will be in poverty. So Glad Tidings to the Poor.”
مَكْفُوْلَةً اَبَدًا مِّنْهُمْ بِخَيْرِ اَبٍ
وَّخَيْرِبَعْلٍ فَلَمْ تَيْتَمْ وَ لَمْ تَئِمٖ
MAKFOOLATAN ABADAM MINHUM BEKHAYRI ABIN
WAKHAYRI BAHLIN FALAM TAYTAM WALAM TA IMI
Islam will always remain protected and preserved.
Accepting Islam, to them, was like finding a father or a good husband.
There was no fear, whatsoever of being orphaned or widowhood.
Makfool means protected or preserved.
Abad means a long period. The Author of Anaaqeedul Fawahid comments that Abad is utilised in a future tense. It can also be used in both the past and future tense.
Bekhayri Abi is referring to the Sacred Personality of the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him), the Sahaaba-e-Kiraam and the Informing Ulama.
Bekhayri Bahlin means the same thing because Bahl means Sayyid or Owner. The wife is also called Bahl.
Here, it is referring to the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him), the Sacred Companions and informing Ulama.
هُمُ الْجِبَالُ فَسَلْ عَنْهُمْ مَّصَادَمَهُمْ
مَاذَا رَاٰى مِنْهُمْ فِیْ كُلِّ مُصْطَدِمٖ
HUMMUL JIBAALA FASAL ANHUM MUSAADIMAHUM
MAAZA RA’AH MINHUM FEE KULLI MUSTADAMI
Ask the enemy, how the Muslims Soldiers behaved on the Battlefield.
They were strong and firm, as rocks.
The brave Soldiers came out, so bravely, in front of the enemies that the Battlefields took Oaths of their Bravery and spoke about them. Every Battlefield boasts and is proud, about their Courage and Bravery. In the next Couplet we will now discuss, the whole Battles in detail. Insha-Allah!
فَسَلْ حُنَيْنًا وَّسَلْ بَدْرًا وَّسَلْ اُحُدًا
فُصُوْلَ حَتْفٍ لَّهُمْ اَدْهٰى مِنَ الْوَخَمٖ
FASAL HUNAYNOW WASAL BADROW WASAL UHUDAN
FASOOLA HATFIL LAHUM AD-HA MINAL WAKHAMI
Ask the Battlefields of Hunain, Badr and Uhad, about the innumerable deaths of the Disbelievers occurring there. It reminded one of the epidemics.
Till now, we have been discussing the Bravery and Courage of the Army of Islam.
Now we will discuss in detail, about some of the Battles that took Place.
Allama says: Ask Hunain, Badr and Uhad, how the Disbelievers were massacred. How the epidemic fell on them? Those days of the Disbelievers seemed like a burden and a plague for them.
Now according to the order of the Couplet of Allama, we will discuss the Battle of Hunain in detail.
Since Allama Kharpoti (May Allah shower mercy upon him) also, has briefly given Commentary, we will speak on the Life of the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him). From some History Books, we will try to enlighten you.
Hunain is a watercourse in between Makkah Mukarrama and Taif. It was the famous market of Zul-Majaaz and 3km from Arafaat. This place is called Owtaas and its Tribe was Hawazan, which had many branches. Since the Circle of Islam was becoming larger, the Arabs noticed that their Tribes were protected. They had in their mind that if the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) was victorious and conquered Makkah, then we will accept that He is the True Prophet. When Makkah was Victorious, then all the Tribes began to come to the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) and accept Islam.
The Hawazan and Saqeef had a different opinion. These Tribes were always experts in Combats and Wars. As Islam was growing stronger, they were becoming more restless. The restlessness to a limit was fine, as due to the overpowering of Islam, their government and rule was slowly declining.
So before the Victory of Makkah, they visited all the tribes in Makkah and began to spread enmity against Islam. They made these rounds for the whole year; like Zarqaani has written that all had given pledges that they will be together and attack the Muslim Army.
When Makkah was conquered, they were convinced that if they did not take precautions, then the largest and most powerful Army would not be able to overpower the Muslim Army.
The Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) received this news that the problem was coming from this side. They did not give Him time to wait. He immediately went in that direction, with the Army and attacked them. It was done with great Inspiration. Every Tribe began to take their Families and began to leave. They thought that if they had to leave their families behind, then they would have no other option, but to leave them and run. Though in this decision, all the branches of Saqeef and Hawazan were together but Kaab and Kilaab were separated.
Two people were appointed as Leaders, Malik bin Auf and Dareed bin Sama. The Leader of the Hawazan was Malik bin Auf. Dareed was the Leader of the Tribe Jashm and also a famous Poet. His Poetry and Courage are still remembered in the History of Arabia. Though he was more than 100 years old and had become lean, the Arabs still believed in him and followed his advice.Malik had requested him to join them. Since he could not walk, he could ride a horse. They placed him on a bed and brought him to the Battlefield. He asked them what place is this? They replied Owtaas and he said, yes this is a suitable place for the battle. Its soil is not very hard nor soft and the feet will become stuck in the ground.
Since the Tribe has brought their families with them, he could hear the children crying. He asked: What is the sound of these children crying? They replied: We have brought the families with us, so that no one misses them and turns back towards them. He replied: This was unnecessary because once a person turns back, then nothing can stop him. In the Battlefield only the sword helps. If you lose this battle, then you will be more disgraced, due to the women. He then asked whether Kaab and Kilaab were with them and they replied no. Dareed said, if today was the Day of Respect, then Kaab and Kilaab would also be present. He then advised them to move from that place and seek a place of safety but Malik bin Auf refused to listen. This young Leader said: Your senses are now useless. The whole incident is related in Tibri in detail.
When the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) heard about this, he sent Abdullah ibn Abi Jadaad, who like a spy, lived in their camp and listen to their conversations. He returned later and informed the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him). He listened to him and then ordered, to prepare for the attack. They required money for a loan, for ammunition. Abdullah bin Rabeeha, who was the stepbrother of Abu Jahal, was a rich person and they borrowed 30.000 dirhams from him. (Masnad Ahmad Imam Humbal (May Allah shower mercy upon him).
Safwaan bin Ummiya was a rich person from Makkah, he did not accept Islam at that time, gave 100 spears and its armour to the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him).
On 7th of Shawaal 8th Hijri (Jan-Feb 630 AC.), the Muslim Army of 12000 Soldiers left toward Hunain.
From the Mouths of the Sahaaba-e-Kiraam, these words were coming out: Who can overpower us today? Allah did not like this pride. He said in the Holy Quran: Remember the Day of Hunain, when you were boasting about your large numbers. The ground became small for you and you turn your backs and ran.
The attack began and the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) saw that from the Special Companions, there were only few left behind. Hazrat Abu Qataada (May Allah be pleased with him) says that I saw an enemy, sitting on the chest of a Muslim. I struck him with my sword, he turned and said my life still exists but through the Grace of Allah, he fell and died.
I saw the Ameerul Moh’mineen Sayyidina Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) and asked what has happened to the condition of the Muslims? He replied: As Allah had wished. (Sahih Bukhari, Seeratun Nabi)
The Reasons for the Defeat
There are many reasons for this defeat.
- Muqaddamatul Jaish who was an archer, under Hazrat Khalid and a young person. Due to the pride of being young, did not come with full force and attack.
- Approximately 2000 people had not accepted Islam yet.
- Hawazan were expert archers and they never missed with any arrow.
- The Disbelievers has reached the Battlefield first and chose the best spot.
- They had placed their Archers on the mountains, valleys and roads.
- The young soldiers attacked, before the sun could come out.
- The War took place in such a place, where one could not stand firmly.
- The archers came out from the opposition and attacked with their arrows.
- When the Muslim Soldiers went forward, thousands of enemies pounced upon them.
- When Muqaddamatul Jaish became helpless and turned backwards, the whole army lost their feet.
In Sahih Bukhari it is related that the whole army dispersed and the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) was left alone. The arrows were pouring and the swords were striking their targets. The 12.000 Soldiers had dispersed but the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) showed His Courage and remained firm.
This Sacred Personality was not in charge of one Army, one Country, or one World but He was in charge of both the Worlds. He looked towards His Right Side and calmly called out: Oh Group of Ansaars! The reply came, we are present. Then He looked towards the left and called out and He received the same reply. He called out in the Jalaal of Nabuwat that I am Allah’s Servant and Messenger.
In Sahih Bukhari it is related that He said these words: I am Allah’s Messenger, which is not false, I am the Son of Abdullah bin Abdul Mutallib. Hazrat Abbaas (May Allah be pleased with him) had an extremely loud voice. Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) commanded him to call the Muhajireen and Ansaars. He called out: Oh Groups of Muhajireen and Ansaars! The effect of this sound reached them and the whole Army returned.
The Holy Quran says: Then Allah pacified the Prophet, the Muslims and sent such Armies, that you never saw before. They punished the Disbelievers. This is the punishment of the Disbelievers. Whoever’s horse had dispersed or was lost and could not turn, they threw their spears and jumped off their horses. The colour of the Battle now changed. The enemies ran away. Whoever remained behind was killed. There was a branch of Banu Saqeef who stood and fought. When 70 people from their clan and their flag carrier, Usman bin Abdullah got killed, they could not stand to fight anymore and accepted defeat.
Some ran to Taif and took refuge there. Their Leader was Malik bin Auf. After this, he returned to Owtaas with thousands of Soldiers. The Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) sent Abu Aamir Ash-ari, with a small army to confront and defeat him. Dareed’s son martyred Abu Aamir. He took the Banner of Islam, in his hand, wanted to rejoice and celebrate.
Abu Moosa Ash’ari went forward, successfully attacked him and sent him to Hell. He took the banner away, from the enemy’s hand.
In brief, the prisoners were captured in thousands. Among them was the Foster sister. Hazrat Sheema of the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him). When the people caught her, she said that she was the sister of the Prophet. They brought her to him and she asked: Am I not your sister? You bit me due to love, when I was small. Look, the mark is still there. The Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) teared and he laid the carpet for her to sit. Then he spoke lovingly to her, gave her some camels and goats and said: If you wish to go home, then you can do so, someone will take you there. Due to love of the family, she chose to go home and she was sent there.
The balance of the army that took refuge in Taif were preparing for a Battle. Taif is a very safe place. It is called Taif because walls surrounded it. The Tribe of Banu Saqeef that lived here were very popular and brave. They were superior among the Arabs and neighbours of the Quraish. Urwa bin Masood was the chief here. He was the son-in-law of Abu Sufyaan.
The Disbelievers of Makkah, used to say that if the Quran descended, then it would descend in Makkah or Taif. They were experts in Battles and very rich.
In Tibri and Ishaaq it is related that Urwa bin Masood, Saqfee and Ghilaan bin Salma went to Jarash which is a town in Yemen. They learnt how to cut and crease tools and make moats. They learnt the art of using them.
There was a fort in Taif that was well protected. It was perished.
The People of Taif and the refugees renovated it. They took a year supply of ammunition, placed it inside the fort and on the four sides of the fort built moats.
The Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) ordered that the booty and the captives be kept safely in Juhraana. He went personally with the army to Khalid bin Muqaddamatul Jaish.
In Islam, this was the first Battle, where ammunition was used. The People from the fort threw hot irons. The Brave Soldiers had to move backwards. Many were hurt. Taif could not be captured. The Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) called Nowfal bin Muaawiya and had a discussion that what must be done? He replied: The lizard has run into its hole, if we carry on, it will be caught, but there is no danger. This is only done in self-defence. The Sahaaba-e-Kiraam requested Huzoor to curse them. He made Dua: Oh Allah! Guide Saqeef and grant them, the opportunity to come to me.
After leaving this place, they went to Juhraana. The booty was in abundance.
4000 ounces of silver.
Regarding the prisoners, the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) waited, so that their friends or relatives will come and they will have a discussion. Many days passed and no one came. The booty was divided into five shares. 4 shares were given to the Army. The fifth share was left in the Baitul Maal for the needy and poor.
In Makkah, many who had embraced Islam and were firm on Belief, in the Holy Quran are called Mu’allifatul Quloob.
Where Masaarif is mentioned regarding Zakaat, Huzoor gave them many Benefits of gifts to them. Many people were given 50 camels. In the Army, each person received 4 camels, 40 goats. Those who went by foot to fight were given thrice the amount.
The captives from the Battle of Hunain were still in Juhraana, when a respectful woman came to the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) and requested to set the prisoners free. This request had come from that Tribe, where His Foster Mother, Daa’ee Haleema (May Allah be pleased with her) belonged. She said: Whichever women are kept captives are, from the Aunts of the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him). The Oath of the Lord! If some King has drunk the milk from our Tribe, then we would have great hopes from him but You are much Greater than the Kings.
Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) replied: Whatever belongs to the Family of Abdul Mutallib, belongs to you also. The proper method of freeing the captives, is to come after Salah and put this request, in front of the People.
So after Zohar Salah they presented their request, to the public. Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) said: I only have rights over my Family but I will intercede for you, to the People.
The Muhajireen and Ansaars woke up and said: Huzoor! Our share is also present in front of you. In this manner 6 thousand captives were freed.
Allama Kharpoti (May Allah shower mercy upon him) states that a Miracle was shown here.
The Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) took some sand, in his Sacred Hand, looked towards the Disbelievers and said: Run away from the Inspiration of the Lord of Kaaba, through this sand. He threw the sand towards them, it flew like dust and entered the Disbelievers eyes. Their eyes were filled with this dust and they ran away.
Battle of Badr
This Couplet also refers to the Battle of Badr.
We will discuss this in detail, beginning with brief Commentary given by Allama Kharpoti (May Allah shower mercy upon him).
Badr is a town that is in between Makkah and Madina. A Battle took place here and though the Muslims were less in numbers and the Disbelievers were larger, the Muslims were victorious.
The Status of the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) was exposed here. The Muslims were saved and the Shaytaan with his army was disgraced.
The Holy Quran says: Indeed, Allah assisted You in Badr, when in the eyes of the enemies you was disgraced.
This was the first Battle that took place in Islam. It took place in Ramadaan. The Muslims were 313 in number and the Disbelievers were close to a Thousand. There was such massacre here that you would not find anything like this, in the other Battles. Allah sent His Blessings and his Angels to assist. 70 Disbelievers were killed and 70 were put in prison. Most of them were Quraishis. Many Miracles were exposed here.
Badr is a name of a town where every year, a festival used to take place. This place is in that road, towards the direction to Syria via the desert. Now you can go to Badr by car through the old road to Makkah or Jeddah. It is about 80 miles from Madina.
The Battle began through this incident: In 2nd Hijri, the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) sent Abdullah bin Ja’sh with 12 soldiers to Batneh Nakhla, with the intention of finding out, about the conditions of the Quraish. They instead of doing this, attacked some traders who were coming from Syria. Among these traders was Umru bin Hazrami who was killed. Two were captured and they took all their goods, came to Madina and presented it to the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him).
The Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) asked: When did I tell you to do this? He did not accept the booty. The Sahaaba-e-Kiraam were furious with him and said: You have done that work for which you was not ordered. You have killed, in the Months of Prohibition. In these months, one is forbidden to fight. Whoever has been killed were from respectful families. Umru bin Hazrami, was the son of Abdullah bin Hazrami. Harab bin Ummiya was the Grandfather of Hazrat Ameer Muaawiya. Harab was the Leader of the Quraish. He was such a Powerful Leader that after Abdul Mutallib, he was chosen as the leader.Those whom you captured, are the Grandsons of Usman and Nowfal Mughaira. Walid’s father Hazrat Khalid’s grandfather was the 2nd leader of the Quraish after Harab.So due to this killing, the whole of the Quraishi Tribe were fuming. They plotted to take revenge.
Hazrat Urwa bin Zubair (May Allah be pleased with him), the nephew of Ummul Moh’mineen Sayyida Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her) relates that not only the Battle of Badr but also all the Battles that took place, with the Quraish, was for this reason only. They wanted to take revenge, for the killing of Umru bin Hazami.
Allama Tibri (May Allah shower mercy upon him) writes that the reason of the Battle of Badr and all the other battles was for taking the revenge of the killing of Umru. Immediately after Hijrat, the Disbelievers were planning to attack. Abdullah bin Ubay received a letter from Makkah to kill Muhammad (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) and if you do not give us the news of his death, then we will come and kill you also. This was the first letter that the People of Makkah sent to Madina. Then small notes were sent regularly. All were preparing for the Battle. That is why in this season, the Quraish had sent all their goods to Syria. Whoever had any money, sent it to Syria also. The ladies were sent also in this caravan. This caravan did not reach Syria yet, when they heard about the killing of Umru. The whole Quraishi Tribe was furious.
When the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) heard about this, He called the Sahaaba-e-Kiraam and had a meeting. Ameerul Moh’mineen Sayyidina Abu Baker Siddique (May Allah be pleased with him) and others gave Inspiring Speeches. Huzoor wanted the opinion of the Ansaars, as when they took the Oath of Alliance, they agreed that if anyone climbs the mountains of Madina, they will pick up their swords. Finally Hazrat Saad bin Ubaada (May Allah be pleased with him) stood up and said: Huzoor is looking towards us and not giving any Commands. The Oath of the Lord! If He commands us, then we are even prepared, to jump into the sea.
Hazrat Miqdaad (May Allah be pleased with him) stood up and said: Huzoor! We are not like the Followers of Sayyidina Moosa (peace be upon him) who said: You and Your Lord go and fight, we will sit here. If Huzoor commands then from all directions, you will find us to be faithful. When the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) heard this He smiled.
On the 12th of Ramadaan, Huzoor was commanded to go for the Battle; He had 313 Faithful Soldiers with him. They travelled for a mile, and then checked the Army. Whoever was small, was sent back. Huzoor said: In such dangerous Battles, children are not on the list.
Umair bin Abi Wakaas (May Allah be pleased with him) was a small boy, when he was told to return, he began to cry. The Sacred Heart melted and he was given permission to remain in the Army. His big brother, Saad bin Wakaas (May Allah be pleased with him) put the armour on for him and placed a sword around his neck. Altogether there were 313 Soldiers. 60 from the Muhajireen and the balance were from the Ansaars. Since they were not pacified about the Disbelievers, they appointed Abi Lubaaba (May Allah be pleased with him) as the Governor in Madina. They sent him back and told him to appoint Aasim bin Adee. After this, Huzoor left for Badr.
Two people were sent on the road to Makkah, so that they could bring news from the people, coming from Makkah. On 17th of Ramadaan, They reached Badr. The Informers came and said that the enemies have reached the other side. The Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) camped here. The enemies had 1000 soldiers. 100 were on horsebacks.Every person from the Quraish was present, besides Abu Lahab. Due to some problems he could not come.
The Commander of the Quraish was Utbah bin Rabeeha. In Badr, the Quraish received news that Abu Sufyaan’s army has already passed. They said: It’s no use fighting now but Abu Jahl was stubborn. The People of Adee and Zahra went away. Since the Quraish had come earlier, they chose the best spots.
The Muslim Army reached later, that is why, they did not have any ponds or wells. The ground was so soft, that the camels’ legs used to sink. Hubaab bin Manzar asked Huzoor, have you been instructed for any particular spot. He replied no. So Hubaab said: I suggest that we move further, where there is a pond. Huzoor agreed to this. Luckily it began to rain and water assembled in ponds everywhere. This water now became useful, for Wazu and Ghusal.
The Holy Quran says: We showered water from the Heavens, so that you can purify yourself.
The Most Merciful Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) allowed the enemies, to take water from the ponds.
It’s night time and everyone is fast asleep, besides one Sacred Personality, who stayed awake, till the morning, making Dua. Morning appeared, a Call was made for Salah, and after Salah, a lecture was given, inspiring everyone, for the war.
On the other side, the Quraish are waiting restlessly, for the Battle to begin. Among them was Hakeem bin Huzaam who later accepted Islam. He did not like bloodshed, so he went to the Commander Utbah and said: If you want then today can be written, as a good day for you. Utbah asked: How? He replied: You have come to take the revenge of Umru, then kill the person who killed him. Utbah liked this suggestion but since it was necessary for Abu Jahl’s opinion, so Utbah said go and tell Abu Jahl about it. When Hakeem told him about it, Abu Jahl said: Utbah has lost his courage. He says this because Huzaifa is in the other Army and he does not want harm to come to his son. Abu Jahl called Utbah’s brother Aamir and said: Did you see the deception of your brother? When Aamir heard this, he tore his clothes, according to Arab Customs and poured sand over his head and said: Alas! Alas! This scene caused a spark among the Army. When Utbah heard about this, he was very angry with Abu Jahl. He said: We will see, who is the brave one in the battlefield.
Since the Merciful Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) did not like bloodshed, a camp was pitched up for Him and He sat inside. Saad bin Maaz (May Allah be pleased with him) was appointed to keep guard. Though Victory and Assistance comes only from Allah, the Angels also were waiting for a command, to fight in the Battle. Morning appeared and the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) set up the rows, the enemies came closer and soon the battle began.
Now there were only two rows, one row was fighting for Truth and the other who was on the false path. When Siddique Akbar (May Allah be pleased with him) saw his son, coming from the opposite direction, he took a sword and went to attack him. When Utbah came, his son Huzaifa went forward, to confront and attack. Sayyidina Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) killed his uncle and returned, with the sword full of blood. It was a very strange sight, where each person attacked, his own family members. Sayyidus Suhaada Hazrat Ameer Hamza (May Allah be pleased with him) killed Utbah.
All knew about the deception and hatred of Abu Jahl. From the Ansaars, two brothers Mahooz and Mahaaz, had taken an Oath, that they will destroy him. Hazrat Abdur Rehman bin Auf (May Allah be pleased with him) says that these brothers came and whispered in my ears: Where is Abu Jahl? I asked: Brothers what will you do, after finding out about him? They replied: We have taken an Oath to Allah, that wherever we find him, we will kill him. I showed them with a sign, that there is Abu Jahl. They went forward and attacked Abu Jahl, the next moment; I saw that Abu Jahl was lying on the ground. Abu Jahl’s son, Akrama, when he saw his father killed, came forward and struck the hand of Mahooz, with his sword. Mahaaz stood and attacked him, but he escaped. Mahooz hand was hanging but he kept fighting with the other hand.
Finally he came to the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him), with the hand. Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) placed the hand back in its position and it was healed and functioning perfectly. After the death of Utbah and Abu Jahl, the enemies put their weapons down and surrendered.
After the Battle, when the captives were brought, the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) asked: Did anyone find Abu Jahl? Hazrat Abdullah bin Masood (May Allah be pleased with him) went out to look for him and found him lying wounded, among the dead bodies. He was taking his last breaths. He asked him: Are you Abu Jahl? He replied: If someone has been killed by his own people, what is so great, to boast about it.
Once Abu Jahl had slapped Hazrat Abdullah, now Hazrat Abdullah placed his foot on the neck of Abu Jahl. He said: Oh shepherd! Look where you are placing your foot. Hazrat Abdullah cut his head off, brought it and placed it, in front of the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him).
The Muslims had lost only 14 people. On the other side numerous people were killed. Many were taken as Prisoners. From among them, two prisoners were killed and the rest were taken to Madina.
In this Battle, the Muslims had only two horses and ordinary ammunition, whereas the enemy was well equipped. 1000 on foot, 500 horses and possessed enough ammunition.
That is why Allama points towards Badr and says: Ask Wasal Badran Ask the Battlefield of Badr, about the Courage of the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) in fighting the Disbelievers. Though they had no means or ammunition, for neither the Battle nor a large Army, but they fought very bravely.
He then speaks further about the Status and Courage of the Beloved Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) and says Wasal Uhadan. Ask the Battlefield of Uhad.
Insha-Allah now we will speak about the Battle of Uhad, beginning with the brief Commentary of Allama Kharpoti (May Allah shower mercy upon him), then we will go into details about this Battle.
Battle of Uhad
This is a suburb near Madina Munowwara.
When the Disbelievers of the Quraish were defeated, in the Battle of Badr and the famous leaders were killed. They gathered again. Suggestions were made to destroy the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him). All agreed to this, then three thousand soldiers assembled and they sent a message to the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him),that they were coming.
So the Beloved Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) on a Friday, announced to the Brave and Faithful Soldiers, to prepare for the Battle and said: People I have dreamt, many cows were getting slaughtered. I saw that I am wearing a firm armour and on my sword, teeth have fallen. I am inside an Abattoir. Regarding the slaughtering of the cow, I interpret that from My Companions, some will get martyred and some will run away. The Armour means Madina. The Teeth on the Sword means that I will also face some difficulties. The Abattoir means that we will kill the Disbelievers Insha-Allah!
They then had a discussion and chose the spot, where they will confront the Disbelievers. The Faithful Companions said Huzoor let us go and confront the Disbelievers.
So Huzoor (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) left the City of Madina on a Friday and the Battle took place. When the Disbelievers began to run, the people began to gather the booty. Due to this, the enemy returned and attacked the Muslims. Many Companions were martyred and the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) was also wounded. This was a period for the Disbelievers era, to come to an end that is called Hataf.
Ad-ha means difficulty Wazamim bilfath’atain is that sickness which most people call plague.
Allama Kharpoti (May Allah shower mercy upon him) ends his commentary here, but we will go into details about this Battle.
Among the Arabs, the killing of a person used to affect them so much that for numerous years, they never forgot about it. Whoever used to defeat them, they regarded it as compulsory, to take revenge. Without doing this, they were never satisfied.
During the Battle of Badr, 70 of their people were killed, who belonged to the Quraish. The whole of Makkah was restless, to take revenge.
During the Battle of Badr, the caravan that went to Syria to sell goods returned with a good profit. They gave the owners of the goods the money but kept the profit safely.
All gathered to discuss, how to take revenge. Abu Jahl’s son Akrama and all those who had lost their beloved ones, were present, in this meeting.
They all gathered at the house of Abu Sufyaan and said: Muhammad (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) have ruined our Tribe, now without taking revenge, our lives will be useless. We desire that the profit that we received, from the caravan from Syria, must all be utilise for this purpose. The Muslims must be shown that this is the spirit of revenge. All agreed to this. They also knew that the ammunition that they had taken previously, was not sufficient, against the Muslims.
Every Country has a special way of lifting the spirit of the people. Among the Arabs, this special way was Poetry.
Umru Hamji was an expert in this field. He was captured during the Battle of Badr but due to the Merciful Grace of the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) he was set free.
He with other Poets, went among the Quraish and began to inflame, the hearts of the Quraish, to take revenge. In the Battlefield, for being on the Straight Path, many Pious Ladies took part.
When these Ladies used to read words of encouragement, in front of the Soldiers and pass the Battlefield, the Arabs used to sacrifice their lives. There were many Pious Women who had sacrificed their children.
From the Opposition, many women, took an Oath that they will drink the blood of those, who had killed their children. When the army assembled, they also joined them. Among them were:
- Hind (daughter of Utbah and mother of Hazrat Muaawiya.)
- Ummeh Hakeem (daughter-in-law of Abu Jahl)
- Fathima (wife of Hazrat Khalid)
- Burzah (daughter of the chief of Taif Masood Saqfee)
- Rayta (wife of Umru bin Aas)
- Khanaas (mother of Mush’ab bin Umair)
Hind’s father and the uncle of Jubair bin Mut’am were killed by Sayyidus Shuhada Hazrat Ameer Hamza (May Allah be pleased with him). So Hind appointed the slave of Jubair, Wa’shi who was an expert with the spear, to kill Sayyidina Ameer Hamza (May Allah be pleased with him). As a reward she told him that she would be set him free.
Though Sayyidina Abbaas (May Allah be pleased with him) had accepted Islam, he still resided in Makkah. He wrote a letter with all the information and sent it with a fast messenger. He instructed the messenger that he must reach Madina, within three days.
When the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) received this information on the 5th of Shawaal 3rd Hijri. He sent two informers Anas and Mownas to go and see, how far the Quraish Army was? They brought back the news that the army had reached very close to Madina. Their horses had eaten, all the green pastures. Huzoor (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) sent Habaab bin Manzar to go and see how big the army was, what preparation they had come with. He came back and gave the correct information. Since there was a danger of the enemies, attacking the City, guards were appointed to guard the Borders of Madina. Hazrat Saad bin Ubaada and Hazrat Saad bin Maaz (May Allah be pleased with himm) stayed awake, for the whole night with ammunition, guarding the Door of Musjid-e-Nabawi.
In the morning the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) had a discussion with the Sahaaba-e-Kiraam. The Ansaars and Muhajireen made this suggestion that the Ladies be sent to the outside Forts and the enemies be attacked, from within the City.
Abdullah bin Ubay bin Salwaan who till now, could not make suggestion, was given a chance, to make a suggestion today. He also agreed with the suggestion of the Ansaar and Muhajireen. Nine Companions who did not take part in the Battle of Badr insisted and made this suggestion that the enemies should be attacked from outside the City.
The Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) entered Baabul Awaali and put on the Armour. When the Companions saw this, they apologised for making suggestion as they felt, He was displeased with their suggestion.
He replied: It is improper for the Prophet of Allah, to take out His Armour, before the Battle ends.
In brief, the Quraish reached close to Madina, on a Wednesday and surrounded Mt. Uhad.
On the other side, the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) performed Jumah Salah and accompanied by 1000 Companions, came out of the town.
Abdullah bin Ubay who had come with an army of 300 soldiers turned back, at the last moment, saying that the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) did not listen to my suggestion. Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) did not bother a bit, about the 300 soldiers returning back. From among the 700 Soldiers, who remained behind, there were only 100 who could fight with spears.
They left with this Army and stopped in front, to check every soldier. All the children were sent back. When Hazrat Raafeh bin Khateej (May Allah be pleased with him) was told to return, as he was still small, he stood on his toes to show that he was tall. Huzoor saw this spirit and allowed him to remain behind. One youngster called out: Huzoor! I can drop him, and since I can drop him down, I must also be given permission, to remain in the Army. Huzoor allowed him also, to remain in the army.
They reached the Battlefield and Huzoor chose the Foot of Mt.Uhad, where rows were assembled. Hazrat Mas’ab bin Umair was given the Banner to carry. Hazrat Zubair bin Al-Awaam was appointed as the Commander of the Cavalry. Hazrat Ameer Hamza (May Allah be pleased with him) was in-charge of the Spear throwers. There was a danger of the enemies, coming from behind and 50 archers were posted on that side, to prevent the army from entering. They were ordered that whether they win or lose the Battle, they must not leave this place. Hazrat Abdullah bin Jabiraan (May Allah be pleased with him) was appointed as their Commander.
Since the Quraish had experienced in Badr, the method the Muslims used, during the Battle, they assembled their rows, according to that. In Maymoona they appointed Khalid, Akrama was made the Commander, Safwaan bin Ummiya was in charge of the Cavalry, Abdullah bin Abi Rabeeha was in charge of the archers. Talha was in charge of the Banner.
The Battle began first with a group of women, from the opposition, singing this couplet with a drum:
We are the daughters of Qaaliniyow, who walk on the stars of the heaven,
We will be with you, if you fight and march forward.
If you move backwards, then we will leave you.
The Battle then began, Abu Aamir who was popular, had left Madina and migrated to Makkah came into the Battlefield with 150 soldiers. Before accepting Islam, the People of Madina used to respect him because of his piety and character. Now he had entered the Battlefield, with the sole intention that when the Ansaars will see him, they will leave the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) and join him. He came in the Battlefield and called out: Do you recognise me I am Abu Aamir? The Ansaars replied: Yes! We regard you as a very corrupted person. Then the Banner-carrier, Talha came out and said: Oh Muslims! Is there anyone from among you, who can kill me and send me to Hell, or die through my hands and go to Paradise? Mowla Ali (karramullahu wajhahu) marched forward and said: I am prepared. He struck Talha with his sword and dropped him.
It is compulsory for the Banner-carrier to cover his sword with the blood or he must fight and break it. Hazrat Sayyidina Ameer Hamza (May Allah be pleased with him) came out for this purpose and struck him so hard with his sword on the shoulder, that the whole body was ripped open till the hips.
The Battle now began. Hazrat Sayyidina Ameer Hamza (May Allah be pleased with him) was now in the centre of the enemies and destroyed the rows of the enemies.
Hazrat Abu Dajaana was a famous wrestler. The Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) picked up a sword and asked: Who can fulfil the rights of this sword? Many hands stretched forward but this honour was given to Abu Dajaana. This honour that was bestowed on him, made him feel proud. He tied a red cloth around his forehead and marched into the enemies. The Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) said: Allah does not like this method but at this moment He loves it. Abu Dajaana attacked the enemies and dropped bodies upon bodies, till he reached Hind. He placed the sword on her head and then picked it up. The Sacred Sword that was given by the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) was not something that should be placed on a woman.
Hazrat Sayyidina Ameer Hamza (May Allah be pleased with him) had swords in both hands and he bravely attacked the enemies, till he destroyed rows of the enemies.
Hind has appointed Wa’shi to kill Sayyidina Ameer Hamza (May Allah be pleased with him) on the promise, that he will be free, if he succeeds. He went out looking for him, when accidentally, he passed in front of Wa’shi. He threw his spear at Sayyidina Ameer Hamza (May Allah be pleased with him), which entered His Sacred Body, through the Navel. He tried to attack back but he stumbled and was martyred. Innah Lillahi Wa Innah ilayhi Raajihoon.
The enemies tried very hard to retain their Banner. When one of the carriers used to fall and die, another person used to run and pick up the Banner. Suwaab was one of them, when he took the Banner in his hand; someone struck him so hard that both his hands were cut off. Before the Banner could fall to the ground, he fell down and let it rest on his chest. He died saying these words: I have fulfilled my rights.
Now the banner was lying on the ground, the enemies were losing hope, when a woman came and picked up the banner. When the enemies saw this, they gathered and stood firmly. Abu Aamir was fighting, on behalf of the enemy. His son Hanzla had embraced Islam, when his father marched forward, to attack the Muslims, Hanzla asked permission from the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) to confront and attack his father. Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) did not like a son, must kill his father, so He did not allow him. Hanzla went towards the Commander Abu Sufyaan to attack him. Shaddaad bin Al-Aswad stopped him and martyred Hanzla.
The Muslims were still, on the winning side. Due to the Banner-holders and the courage of Hazrat Mowla Ali (karramullahu wajhahu) and Hazrat Abu Dajaana, the enemy’s defence was broken. They began to run backwards. The Muslims began to leave their positions and grab the booty. The archers also when they saw this, began to run towards the booty. Hazrat Abdullah bin Jubair (May Allah be pleased with him) tried to stop them, from leaving their position but they did not listen and became engrossed in looting the booty. Only a few faithful people remained behind and they were all martyred.
Now the way was clear, Khalid bin Walid grabbed this opportunity, came from behind, with his army and attacked the Muslims. It was very late when the Muslims realised their mistake, as they were surrounded by the enemies and attacked from all sides.
Ibn Qumya martyred Hazrat Mus’ ab bin Umair (May Allah be pleased with him) who resembled the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) a lot, during this period. He began to rejoice and announced that the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) was martyred. The Muslims lost hopes, when they heard this news.
All the front lines were turning, towards the back lines. No one could recognize a friend, from an enemy now.In this mix up, the father of Hazrat Huzaifa, Yamaan was killed. Hazrat Huzaifa said sadly: Oh Muslims! May Allah forgive you all.
When the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) turned back, He saw that there were only eleven faithful people left. Due to this sad news, most of them had lost their courage, besides the faithful ones. The Beloved Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) did not know, who was where and doing what, besides seeing Mowla Ali (karramullahu wajhahu) fighting bravely, in the front lines of the enemies. All were looking for the Beloved Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him).
The uncle of Hazrat Anas (May Allah be pleased with him), Ibn Nasar (May Allah be pleased with him) fought bravely and reached the front row of the enemies. There he saw Sayyidina Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) was very sad and had thrown down his sword. He asked: What are you doing Umar? He replied: What must I fight for, when the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) has been martyred. It is useless to live now. Ibn Nasar said: Indeed how will we remain alive, after He is gone. He marched forward and fought bravely till he became martyred. After the Battle it was observed that Ibn Nasar had more than 80 wounds inflicted on his body, through swords and spears. No one could recognize him. His sister recognised him, through his finger.
The first person to notice the Beloved Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) was Kaab bin Maalik (May Allah be pleased with him). He shouted: Oh Muslims! The Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) is still present here. This announcement made the dead hearts come alive. All the Faithful Ones surrounded the Beloved Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him). The enemies also, left all sides and turned towards this side.
They surrounded the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him). He asked: Who is prepared to sacrifice his life for me? Hazrat Ziyaad Ibn Sakan accompanied by five Ansaars came forward and gave their lives.
Hazrat Ziyaad (May Allah be pleased with him) was given this honour that when the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) said: Bring his body near to me.
He was taking his last breaths. He placed his head, on the Sacred Feet, of the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) and passed away.
One brave Muslim Soldier was standing on one side, eating dates.
He thought for a little while, then came to the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) and asked: If I die, what will be my position?
Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) replied: Paradise. He went forward and killed many enemies and became martyred. (Sahih Bukhari Part Battle of Uhad)
Abdullah bin Qumya who was a popular soldier of the Quraish, fought till he reached the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him).
He struck the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) so hard, with the sword on the Sacred Face. All the Faithful Ones ran and surrounded the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him), when the arrows began to pour like rain.
Hazrat Abu Dajaana became the shield for the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him). Now whatever arrows were thrown, they struck his back. Hazrat Talha (May Allah be pleased with him) was stopping the arrows with his hand, till it was cut and fell down. The Beloved Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) kept making this Dua: Oh Allah forgive my Ummat as they have not recognised Me.
The father of Abu Talha, Hazrat Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) was a very good Archer. He placed the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) on his camel and said: Huzoor Please do not pick your Head up. When the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) used to look towards the enemies, Hazrat Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) used to say: Huzoor! My parents be sacrificed over you. Please do not lift your Head It must not happen that some arrow strikes you. My chest is available for this.
Hazrat Saad bin Wakaas (May Allah be pleased with him) was a famous Archer and he was ordered by the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) to keep aiming his arrows, towards the enemies.
In brief, the Faithful Companions took the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) to a Cave in Mt. Uhad. Abu Sufyaan wanted to climb this mountain but Sayyidina Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) and the Sahaaba-e- Kiraam pelted them with so many stones, due to which they could not climb up.
When the people from Madina heard about the Martyrdom of the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him), the sincere people ran towards Mt. Uhad. Khatooneh Jannat Sayyida Fathimatuz Zohra (May Allah be pleased with her) also ran with them. When they reached Uhad, they found that the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) was still bleeding. Mowla Ali (karramullahu wajhahu) brought some water and Sayyida Fathima (May Allah be pleased with her) kept washing the wound but the bleeding did not stop. So they burnt some straw mats and applied the ashes to the wound, then only the bleeding stopped. (Sahih Bukhari.)
Abu Sufyaan climbed the mountain and called out: Is the Prophet here? Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) requested, do not say anything.
Then Abu Sufyaan said: Where is Abu Baker and Umar? When he heard no reply, he said all are dead. Sayyidina Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) could not bear to hear these words and said: Oh enemy of the Lord! What nonsense are you speaking? We are all alive. Abu Sufyaan said: Hubal (idol) is the greatest.
Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) said to Sayyidina Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) to reply: Allah is the Mightiest and Greatest. Abu Sufyaan replied: We have the idol Uzza with us that you all do not have. The Sahaaba-e-Kiraam were ordered to say: We have a Owner and you do not have anyone to protect you. Abu Sufyaan said: Today we have taken the revenge of Badr. Our Army has cut the ears and nose of your soldiers. I did not command them to do this, when I came to know about it, I did not feel sad. (Bukhari Sharief).
The Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) had sent the women and children to the outside forts for safety. When they learnt about the defeat, they all came running towards Uhad. Hazrat Saabit (May Allah be pleased with him) was martyred on the way.
The disbelieving women also took revenge with the Martyrs. They cut the ears, nose, made a garland and put it round the neck of Hind. Hind cut the Sacred Chest of Sayyidina Ameer Hamza (May Allah be pleased with him) open. She took out His Sacred Heart and tried to chew and swallow it but it could not go down her throat, so she spat it out.
After the Victory of Makkah, she embraced Islam but how she accepted Islam, is also a lesson to learn from.
When Sayyida Safiya (May Allah be pleased with her) sister of Sayyidina Ameer Hamza (May Allah be pleased with him) came to see his body. Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) told her son, Hazrat Zubair (May Allah be pleased with him) not to go and look at the body. He took the message to her and she replied: I have heard the whole story about my brother’s condition, but I do not have any grievance because it was for the Path of Allah that he gave his life. I regard this, as a big sacrifice, for the Path of Allah. Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) gave her permission to go and see the body.
When she saw the ripped body of her beloved brother, she uttered Ah! and took a painful breath. She said Innah lillah Wa innah ilayhi Raaji’oon and made Dua for him. She did not cry or make Uf also.
Seventy Brave Soldiers were martyred in this Battle. Due to the poverty of the Muslims, they did not have so much material, to use for Kafan. If they covered the head, the feet were exposed. If the feet were covered, the head was exposed. Finally they covered the feet with grass. This is a sad story which one, when he remembers later, brings tears to his eyes. The Martyrs were buried in the same condition without Ghusal and two people were put in each grave.
When the both armies departed after the Battle, the Muslims were severely wounded.
Abu Sufyaan wanted to come back and finish them off. Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) called out, who will confront them? Immediately 70 Sahaaba-e-Kiraam stood up and among then was Sayyidina Siddique Akbar and Hazrat Zubair (May Allah be pleased with himm) (Sahih Bukhari.)
Abu Sufyaan left Uhad and reached Rooha. He still was not satisfied and decided to come back.
The Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) knew about this earlier, that is why He announced, no one must leave. They went to Humra Asad that is 8 miles away. The Tribe Qaza’ah from this place did not accept Islam yet but they were on the Muslims side.
The Leader of this Tribe was Mub’ad Khaza’ee, when he heard about the defeat; he went to meet the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him). Then he went to Abu Sufyaan and told him that I have seen the Army of the Muslims that is so huge, that nobody can beat this army.So Abu Sufyaan returned.
From this Tradition it is also proved that during the Battle the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) lost his Sacred Teeth and was wounded on his Sacred Face and Forehead.
اَلْمُصْدِرِىْ الْبِيْضِ حُمْرًامبَعْدَ مَاوَرَدَتْ
مِنَ الْعِدٰى كُلَّ مُسْوَدٍّ مِّنَ اللَّمَمٖ
ALMUSDIRIL BIYDHI HUMRAM BA’DA MA WARADAT
MINAL IDAH KULLA MUSWADDIM MINAL LIMAMI
The Sahaaba-e-Kiraam took their white swords and brought it back, after making it drink blood, when the swords used to penetrate, through the black hair of the enemies.
Musdaree in original form is Musdareen but due to the meaning of the word, it was left out and an alif laam was added in front, which means addition.
Musdar comes from the nominative tense Isdaar. It means to let the animals quench their thirst, from the ponds and bring them back.
Bayyid comes from Abyad that means white.
Humr comes from Ahmar that means red.
Muswaddin with a tashdeed means black. It comes from the word Aswad.
Lamma is the hair which reaches till the shoulders
In conclusion, the whole meaning of this Couplet is: The Brave Soldiers of Islam are such that they used to strike, the strong soldiers of the enemies on the heads, with their white swords. They let their swords drink the blood and bring it back coloured with blood.
Mowla Ya Swalli Wa Sallim Daa’iman Abadan
Alah Habeebika Khayril Khalqi Kullihimi.
وَالْكَاتِبِيْنَ بِسُمْرِ الْخَطِّ مَاتَرَكَتْ
اَقْلَامُهُمْ حَرْفَ جِسْمٍ غَيْرَ مُنْعَجِمٖ
WAKAATIBEENA BISUMRIL KHATTI MAA TARAKAT
AQLAAMUHUM HARFA JISMIN GHAYRA MUN’AJIMI
The spears of the Muslims scarred the bodies of the enemy through injuries.
In this Couplet, it is proved that the arrows of the Sahaaba-e-Kiraam injured the bodies of the enemies. No enemy escaped from the Battlefield without being wounded.
شَاكِىْ السِّلَاحِ لَهُمْ سِيْمَا تَمَيُّزِهِمْ
وَالْوَرْدُ يَمْتَازُ بِالسِّيْمَا مِنَ السَّلَم
SHAAKIS SILAAHI LAHUM SEEMA TUMAYYIZUHUM
WAL WARDU YAMTAAZU BIS SEEMA MINAS SALAMI
The Sahaaba-e-Kiraam used to dress in armour and be inspired in such manner, that their faces were more beloved, like the rose is more beloved than the cacti.
Fully equipped with armour, yet the Faces of the Companions of the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) resembled rose flowers while the faces of the enemies resembled the cactus plant. The rose is more beautiful and beloved than the cacti flower. The beauty and smell that you find in the rose, you will not find in the cactus’s flower. That is why the rose is more superior than the cactus’s flower.
تُهْدِىْ اِلَيْكَ رِيَاحُ النَّصْرِ نَشْرَهُمٗ
فَتَحْسِبُ الْوَرْدَ فِیْ الْاَكْمَامِ كُلَّ كَمٖ
TUH’DEE ILAYKA REEYAHUN NASRI NASHRAHUM
FA TAH’SABUZ ZAHRA FIL AKMAAMI KULLA KAMI
The Sweet Smell of the Sahaaba-e-Kiraam brings News of the Victory of Makkah. Everyone in their Armour looked like Rosebuds.
The Companions of the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) were fully protected and in every Battle they over-powered the Disbelievers. The enemies were coming forward to sacrifice their lives, like the morning breeze brings news of success. So in this condition the Brave Companions looked like rosebuds.
كَاَ نَّهُمْ فِیْ ظُهُوْرِ الْخَيْلِ نَبْتُ رُبًا
مِّنْ شِدَّةِ الْحَزْمِ لَامِنْ شِدَّةِ الْحُزَمٖ
KA ANNAHUM FEE ZUHOORIL KHAYLI NABTU RUBAN
MIN SHADDATIL HAZMI LAH MIN SHIDDATIL HUZUMI
They sat firmly and strongly on horsebacks, as the trees are on the hills.
They did not care for saddles. They were such courageous and perfect riders.
While praising the riders, Allama says that they sat firmly on horsebacks. They did not care for saddles.
Allama gives an example and says that they sat firmly, just like a tree spreads its roots into the ground and stands firmly on the hills. The Swift wind fails to drop it. The riders from the enemies, looked like a heap of grass, on the back of a horse, sometimes swaying and falling this side and sometimes the other side.
Allama gave this example in Nabtu Ruban.
In the next line he says Shaddatil Hazmi that means perfect riders and then he mentions Huzum that means a bundle of sticks tied together.
طَارَتْ قُلُوْبُ الْعِدٰى مِنْ مبَاْسِهِمْ فَرَقًا
فَمَا تُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ الْبَهْمِ وُالْبُهُمٖ
TAARAT QULOOBUL IDAH MIM BAH’SIHIM FARAQAN
FAMA TUFARRIQU BAYNAL BAH’MI WALBUHAMI
On account of the hardships incurred, the senses of the enemy were dazed.
In the confusion, they could not tell the difference between a lamb and a warrior.
Due to the fear of the Sahaaba-e-Kiraam, the enemies used to flee and be worried so much that they could not tell the difference, between lamb and a strong warrior. If the lamb had to cry in the jungle, the enemies used to flee, thinking some strong warrior was coming to attack them.
Mowla Ya Swalli Wa Sallim Daa’iman Abadan
Alah Habeebika Khayril Khalqi Kullihimi.
وَ مَنْ تَكُنْ مبِرَسُوْلِ اللهِ نُصْرَتُهٗ
اِنْ تَلْقَهُ الْاُسْدُ فِىْ اٰجَامِهَا تَجِمٖ
WAMAN TAKUM BERASOOLILLAHI NUSRATUHU
IN TILQAHUL USDU FEE AAJAAMIHA TAJIMI
Those who had the Holy Prophet’s (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) Blessings were full of Inspiration, that even if the lion came in front, the lion would remain silent.
On whomever are the Special Graces, Assistance and Victory of the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him), then why would a lion frighten him? Instead the lion will fear him and bow in front of him.
Allama is pointing out that the Victory and Assistance that the Sahaaba-e-Kiraam received, was through the Sadqa, of the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him). It was only through the Sacred Presence of the Sacred Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) that there were victorious in the Battles. The Sahaaba-e-Kiraam were safe through Him.
Hazrat Safeena (May Allah be pleased with him) the Slave of the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) during the Battle of Rome, became a captive, by the Disbelievers. Somehow he escaped and on the way through the jungle, he confronted a lion. He said to the lion: Oh lion! I am the slave of the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) and I desire to go, towards the Islamic Army. The lion instead of attacking him, walked in front and directed him towards the Muslim Camp. When they reached the Army, the lion returned back.
Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) relates that we were on a journey when we saw a group of people. We asked them what had happened? They replied that this lion has blocked the road. This lion has killed many people. Hazrat Abdullah (May Allah be pleased with him) descended from the horse and went near the lion and held its ear and said: Beware! In future, do not trouble the people, go and stay in your den.The lion bowed its head and went away.
Mowla Ya Swalli Wa Sallim Daa’iman Abadan
Alah Habeebika Khayril Khalqi Kullihimi.
وَ لَنْ تَرٰى مِنْ وَّلِىٍّ غَيْرَ مُنْتَصِرٍ م
بِهٖ وَ لَامِنْ عَدُوٍّ غَيْرَ مُنْقَسِمٖ
WALAN TARAA MIW WALIYYIN GHAIRA MUNTASIRIN
BIHI WALAH MIN ADOOWIN GHAIRA MUNQASIMI
Whoever will be near the Court of the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) will never be helpless. Whoever is the enemy of the Sacred Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) will be always be accused and degraded.
The Friends and Companions of the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) will always be protected, through the Sadqa of the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) and His enemies will always remain disgraced.
Allama Kharpoti (May Allah shower mercy upon him) says that all the Saints, through the Sadqa of the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) are safe. No Qutub can become a Qutub. No Owtaad can become an Owtaad. No Amaad can become an Amaad. They all achieved these positions, through the Sadqa of the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) and through the Honour of being firm, on Islamic Laws.
Whoever is an enemy of the Laws of Shariat, is an enemy of the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him). Samehow, whoever is an enemy of the Truthful Ulama, is an enemy of the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him).
Allama Haqqi (May Allah shower mercy upon him) relates in Tafseer Roohul Bayaan that we were in a Group of the Ignorant Ones, when the discussion reached this point.
One person got up and said: No one can gain freedom from the desires of this world, even if He is a Sacred Personality. Here he was referring to the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him).
He further said: The Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) said: Three things are beloved to Me from your world.
- Coolness of the eyes that is Salah.
I replied: Huzoor said three things have been made beloved for him. He did not say that I love these three things. How can you insult those things, which Allah loves?
After this I regretted that why did I listen to such words.
During the night I had the Honour of seeing the Beloved Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) who said: Don’t be sad. Everything will be different.
اَحَلَّ اُمَّتَهٗ فيِ حِرْزِ مِلَّتِهٖ
كَاللَّيْثِ حَلَّ مَعَ الْاَشْبَالِ فِیْ اَجَمٖ
AHALLA UMMATAHU FEE HIRZI MILLATIHI
KAL LAYSI HALLA MA’AL ASHBAALI FEE AJAMI
With His Religion and Adherence, to the Path of Truth, the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) has kept us all protected, just like the tigers cubs are, in the jungle.
In Hadith-e Qudsi Allah Ta’ala said: Kalima Towheed is my Fort. Whoever enters My Fort gains freedom from My Punishments.
This Couplet is referring towards this Hadith and Allama further says:Since the Ummat is safe in this Fort, so it is protected from all types of evils and punishments.
كَمْ جَلَّلَتْ كَلِمَاتُ اللهِ مِنْ جَدَلٍ
فِيْهِ وَكَمْ خَصَّمَ الْبُرْهَانُ مِنْ خَصَمٖ
KAM JADDALAT KALIMAATULLAHI MIN JADILIN
FEEHI WAKAM KHASSAMAL BURHAANU MIN KHASIMI
Many times the Holy Quran humiliated the enemy. The unbelievers have had to bow down, before convincing proofs and after seeing the Miracles.
Great-Learned People became disgraced when they tried to challenge the Quran.
Many Qualified People who tried to have a debate, with the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) had to bow their heads down and walk away in shame.
Abu Jahal brought pebbles and these pebbles testified in favour of the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him), which is in detail in Couplet 76.
Those who desired to see Miracles, saw, how the dry tree bowed and spoke with respect.
So it is very clear that the Opposition tried everything in their power but Islam kept prospering further and further.
Mowla Ya Swalli Wa Sallim Daa’iman Abadan
Alah Habeebika Khayril Khalqi Kullihimi.
كَفَاكَ بِالْعِلْمِ فِیْ الْاُمِّىِّ مُعْجِزَةً
فِیْ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ وَالتَّاْدِيْبِ فِیْ الْيُتُمٖ
KAFAAKA BIL ILMI FIL UMMIYI MUH’JIZATAN
FIL JAAHILIYATI WATTA’DEEBI FIL YUTUMI
It is sufficient for you, the Knowledge that the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) possessed, without learning, from the beginning of the era to the Days of Propagation. This itself is a Miracle.
Oh Lecturer! The Knowledge of the Miracles of the Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) is sufficient for you. Though He was uneducated during the Days of Orphanhood. He was a brilliant Teacher.
If you look towards proofs, then, is this not adequate, that the Great Personality, never acquired Knowledge, from the ignorant people, from the beginning till the end. Then also He was an Expert in all fields. He was a Great and most Superior Person among all the Great Qualified People. He achieved all the Wonderful Benefits and Examples from this world. This all came from the Teachings of the Lord. The Holy Prophet (May Allah send peace and blessings upon him) said: My Lord gave Me the best Education with Great Respect.
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