Allah Almighty states in the Holy Quran:

یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوا اصْبِرُوۡا وَصَابِرُوۡا ٪

  ‘O believers! be patient, and excel in patience with the enemies.

(Aale ‘Imran 3, Verse 200)

Hadeeth:

حَدَّثَنَا عُثْمَانُ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا جَرِيرٌ، عَنْ مَنْصُورٍ، عَنْ أَبِي وَائِلٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ لَمَّا كَانَ يَوْمُ حُنَيْنٍ آثَرَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أُنَاسًا فِي الْقِسْمَةِ، فَأَعْطَى الأَقْرَعَ بْنَ حَابِسٍ مِائَةً مِنَ الإِبِلِ، وَأَعْطَى عُيَيْنَةَ مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ، وَأَعْطَى أُنَاسًا مِنْ أَشْرَافِ الْعَرَبِ، فَآثَرَهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ فِي الْقِسْمَةِ‏.‏ قَالَ رَجُلٌ وَاللَّهِ إِنَّ هَذِهِ الْقِسْمَةَ مَا عُدِلَ فِيهَا، وَمَا أُرِيدَ بِهَا وَجْهُ اللَّهِ‏.‏ فَقُلْتُ وَاللَّهِ لأُخْبِرَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم‏.‏ فَأَتَيْتُهُ فَأَخْبَرْتُهُ فَقَالَ ‏ ‏ فَمَنْ يَعْدِلُ إِذَا لَمْ يَعْدِلِ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ رَحِمَ اللَّهُ مُوسَى قَدْ أُوذِيَ بِأَكْثَرَ مِنْ هَذَا فَصَبَرَ ‏‏‏.‏  فَقُلْتُ لَا جَرَمَ لَا اَفْرَعُ اِلَیْہِ بَعْدَھَا حَدِیْثًا۔

متفق علیہ

Sayyiduna ‘Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud – may Allah be pleased with him – reported:  After the battle of Hunain, Messenger of Allah – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – gave preference some people in the distribution of spoils. He gave Al-Aqra’ ibn Habis and ‘Uyainah ibn Hisn a hundred camels each and he also showed favour to some more honourable persons among the Arabs. Someone said: “This division is not based on justice and it was not intended to win the Pleasure of Allah.” I said: “By Allah! I will inform Messenger of Allah – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – of this.” I went to him and informed him. His face turned red and he said, “Who will do justice if Allah and His Messenger do not?” Then he said, “May Allah have mercy on Sayyiduna Moosa – peace be upon; he was caused more distress than this but he remained patient.” Having heard this I said to myself: “I shall never convey anything of this kind to him in future”.

(Bukhari, Muslim)

Commentary (The Fatwa of Imam Ibn Hajar):

Imam Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani – may Allah be pleased with him – exposes this hypocrites as he comments on the Hadeeth as follows:

From this we come to know that relating an important news to the authority is permissible, hence when Sayyiduna ‘Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood – may Allah be pleased with him – related it to the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him, he did not stop him from doing so, for it was done with the intent for wishing for the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him.  He actually identified a hypocrite in the court of the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him, so that he may safeguard himself against him.  It is permissible to spy on a hypocrite as it is permissible to spy on the kuffar, so the web of their treacherous conspiracies is destroyed.  The person who made these remarks about the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – committed a very great sin, so there is no need to spare him any mercy.

(Fat’h al-Baari Vol. 11, p. 434(

It is Open Kufr to Insult the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – by Consensus (Ijma’):

Qadhi ‘Iyadh al-Maliki – may Allah be pleased with him – passes the verdict in his world renowned book Al-Shifa as follows:

أَنَّ جَمِيعَ مَنْ سَبَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَوْ عَابَهُ أَوْ أَلْحَقَ بِهِ نَقْصًا فِي نَفْسِهِ أَوْ نَسَبِهِ، أَوْ دِينِهِ أَوْ خَصْلَةٍ مِنْ خِصَالِهِ أَوْ عَرَّضَ بِهِ أَوْ شَبَّهَهُ بِشَيْءٍ عَلَى طَرِيقِ السَّبِّ لَهُ أَوِ الْإِزْرَاءِ عَلَيْهِ، أَوِ التَّصْغِيرِ لِشَأْنِهِ، أَوِ الْغَضِّ مِنْهُ وَالْعَيْبِ لَهُ فَهُوَ سَابٌّ لَهُ.  وَالْحُكْمُ فِيهِ حُكْمُ السَّابِّ يُقْتَلُ كَمَا نُبَيِّنُهُ. وَلَا نَسْتَثْنِي فَصْلًا مِنْ فُصُولِ هَذَا الْبَابِ عَلَى هَذَا الْمَقْصِدِ، وَلَا نَمْتَرِي  فِيهِ تَصْرِيحًا كَانَ أَوْ تَلْوِيحًا.

وَكَذَلِكَ مَنْ لَعَنَهُ أَوْ دَعَا عَلَيْهِ، أَوْ تَمَنَّى مَضَرَّةً لَهُ، أَوْ نَسَبَ إِلَيْهِ مَا لَا يَلِيقُ بِمَنْصِبِهِ عَلَى طَرِيقِ الذَّمِّ، أَوْ عَبَثَ فِي جِهَتِهِ الْعَزِيزَةِ بِسُخْفٍ مِنَ الْكَلَامِ، وَهَجْرٍ  ومنكر من القول وزور. أو عَيَّرَهُ بِشَيْءٍ مِمَّا جَرَى مِنَ الْبَلَاءِ وَالْمِحْنَةِ عَلَيْهِ، أَوْ غَمَصَهُ  بِبَعْضِ الْعَوَارِضِ الْبَشَرِيَّةِ الْجَائِزَةِ وَالْمَعْهُودَةِ لَدَيْهِ

 وَهَذَا كُلُّهُ إِجْمَاعٌ مِنَ الْعُلَمَاءِ وَأَئِمَّةِ الْفَتْوَى مِنْ لَدُنِ الصَّحَابَةِ رِضْوَانُ اللَّهِ عليهم إلى هلم  جرا

There is no doubt that anyone who speaks ill, reviles, disparages or offends the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – with regards to his personality, lineage, religion or any of his qualities, or gives implicit speech or gestures slighting him, or likens him to a thing for spite sake or for belittlement, then in such a case he is deemed to be someone who has insulted.  The legal judgment for insulting the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – is death penalty without any doubt or hesitation when it comes to fulfilling the prescribed penalty.

Likewise is the case of anyone who curses the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him, invokes Allah’s curse upon him, wishes to inflict harm upon him, ascribes anything irrelevant to his court out of disparaging him, utters obscene or scoffing speech against the honoured part of the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him, forges false statement against him, dishonours him due to the ordeals and afflictions which befell him or disparages him for having been afflicted with the accidental symptoms (of human nature, such as diseases etc.) which were common among the Prophets (peace be upon them).

This legal judgment is passed by the consensus of Islamic Scholars and Jurists from among the Companions of the Holy Prophets – may Allah be pleased with them, to the end of the last days of the world.

(Al-Shifa Vol. 2, p. 214)

The Reason as to Why the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – did Not have him Killed:

One who insults the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – is to be incumbently killed.  However, the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – did not punish this person, perhaps because his crime did not have sufficient proof, for only one Sahabi narrated his statement to the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – and the proceedings on death penalty is not be carried out if there is only one witness.

Sayyiduna Jabir – may Allah be pleased with him – reports that when the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – distributed silver upon the return from the batter of Hunain, a man said, “Do justice, O Muhammad.”  Sayyiduna ‘Umar – may Allah be pleased with him – sought permission from the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – so he could behead that man.  The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – stated, “Allah forbid, lest people begin to say that Muhammad (may Allah send peace and blessings upon him) go about killing his companions.”

These could be the possible reasons as to why the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – did not choose to prosecute him.

(Ikmal al-Mu’allim, Chapter of khawarij and their traits, under Hadeeth No. 1064)

The Fate of Insulting the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him

It is reported that once a person was sitting near the Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – and eating with his left hand. When the Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – saw this, he commanded, “Eat with your right hand.” However, this person, in a state of pride, replied, “I cannot eat with my right hand.” When the Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – heard this answer, he replied, “You will not eat with your right hand.”

The narrator then explains that thereafter this person was never able to take his right hand towards his mouth. In other words, he was immediately punished for disobeying a direct command of the Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him.

(Muslim Shareef)

It is reported that there was once a person who was riding his horse in between Safa and Marwah. Bear in mind that in those days, both of these holy places were outside the Haram Shareef. He had many slaves and servants who were also travelling with him. Due to his actions, the place was also becoming extremely constrained for other people as well. Many people who were trying to walk also became very angry at the behaviour of this person and the great pride and arrogance which he was displaying. People also gave him many dirty looks. He was also a tall person and his eyes were also considered very large.

It is mentioned that a few years later, one of the people who had performed Hajj with this person saw him sitting on the bridge which led into Baghdad Shareef. He was begging. This person asked him, “Are you not that person who performed Hajj during a certain year and you were surrounded by your slaves and servants? And where you not person who even made the road small for others as well?”

He replied that indeed he was that person.

The person then asked him what had happened to him and how come he was now begging from people. He replied, “I had adopted pride and arrogance in that place where pious and noble people display humility and respect. As a reward, Allah Almighty had bestowed upon me humiliation and disgrace in that place where disgraced people are also humiliated.”

A person who insulted the Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – and his ultimate disgrace:

A current report has been presented in this regard. The narrator of this incident is a famous scholar from Egypt named Shaikh Ahmed Shaakir.

He narrates, “Once, the Governor gave a special award to a blind intellectual named Taha Yaseen. He displayed immense respect and decorum for this blind person. However, the Khatib of this Masjid, then began to praise the Governor to such a degree that people were surprised. Perhaps, his intention was to create a good name for himself among the people in the government and within political circles. This Khatib mentioned the following words, ‘A blind person approached the Ameer named Taha Yaseen, however, the Ameer did not turn his head away and was not displeased.’

“However, as soon as the Jumu’ah Salaah was complete, the father of the narrator, Shaikh Mohammed Shakir, announced to everyone, ‘Wake up and re-perform your Salaah. His Salaah was not accepted and it is now Waajib upon us to re perform our Salaah. The reason is that this Khatib has clearly insulted the Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – and has therefore committed Kufr.’

“The incident in question is about the sudden appearance of Hadrat Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Umme Maktum – may Allah be pleased with him – who had appeared at that time when the Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – was presenting the message of Islam to the leaders of Makkah Shareef. Obviously, since this was a very sensitive moment, the Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – was not pleased with the sudden appearance of this blind companion. It is also mentioned that he turned away his blessed face from this person.

“Therefore, this Khatib under discussion was trying to indicate to people that this Governor was greater than the Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – because he had not turned away from this blind person, Taha Yaseen. This was certainly clear Kufr and hence the remark made by Shaikh Mohammed Shaakir that people should re-perform their Salaah.

“As a matter of fact, this ignorant Khatib also felt the Divine Wrath of Allah Almighty in this world and what is in the Hereafter, remains to be seen. I then saw that this same Khatib, who was once one of the famous people and who was among the special dignitaries of his period, was standing on the doorway of one of the Masjids and looking after the shoes of people who were entering the Masjid! One could clearly see humiliation on his face and because I knew him and he also knew me, I made sure that he did not notice me.”

(Sunehre Awraaq)

As we have read in this Hadeeth that the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – was deeply disappointed and got angry to the extent that his blessed face turned red but he got hold of his anger and held fast on to patience and did not proceed to take revenge.  Therefore, we should take lesson from our master – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – to keep our anger in check when we get angry.

There are numerous Quranic verses and Ahadeeth where the virtues of quenching one’s anger are mentioned.

Allah Almighty stated in the Holy Quran as follows:

وَالْکٰظِمِیۡنَ الْغَیۡظَ وَالْعَافِیۡنَ عَنِ النَّاسِؕ وَاللہُ یُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِیۡنَ﴿۱۳۴﴾ۚ

  And those who restrain anger and who pardon men. And virtuous people are dear to Allah.

(Aale ‘Imran 3, Verse 134)

Tafseer:

وَرُوِيَ عَنْ مَيْمُونِ بْنِ مِهْرَانَ أَنَّ جَارِيَتَهُ جَاءَتْ ذَاتَ يَوْمٍ بِصَحْفَةٍ فِيهَا مَرَقَةٌ حَارَّةٌ، وَعِنْدَهُ أَضْيَافٌ فَعَثَرَتْ فَصَبَّتِ الْمَرَقَةَ عَلَيْهِ، فَأَرَادَ مَيْمُونٌ أَنْ يضربها، فقالت الجارية: يا مولاي، استعمل قول الله تَعَالَى: وَالْكاظِمِينَ الْغَيْظَ. قَالَ لَهَا: قَدْ فَعَلْتُ.

 فَقَالَتْ: اعْمَلْ بِمَا بَعْدَهُ وَالْعافِينَ عَنِ النَّاسِ. فَقَالَ: قَدْ عَفَوْتُ عَنْكِ.

 فَقَالَتِ الْجَارِيَةُ: وَاللَّهُ يُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِينَ. قَالَ مَيْمُونٌ: قَدْ أَحْسَنْتُ إِلَيْكِ، فَأَنْتِ حُرَّةٌ لِوَجْهِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى.

It is narrated about Sayyiduna Maimoon ibn Mehran that one day, his slave was bringing a dish which had hot soup in it but she tumbled and spilled the soup on him.  He went forward wanting to punish her then the slave said, “O my master, act upon Allah’s command “And those who restrain anger”, and he said I did.

She then said, “Act upon what follows after it ‘and who pardon people’,” and he said, “I forgive you”.

The slave then said, “And virtuous people are dear to Allah.” So Maimoon said, “I will do good to you.  So from now you are free for the sake of Allah Almighty.”

(Tafseer Qurtubi under S3, Verse No. 134)

Best People of Ummah:

The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – has stated:

The best people of my Ummah are those when they are angry, they quickly control it.

(Mu’jam al-Awsat Hadeeth No. 5793)

Most Virtuous Gulp:

The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – has stated:

There is no other gulp more virtuous in the court of Allah than the gulp a servant of His drinks seeking his pleasure at the time of anger.

(Ibn Majah Hadeeth No. 4189)

Chest Filled with Iman:

The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – has stated:

There is no other gulp more virtuous in the court of Allah than the gulp a servant of His drinks seeking his pleasure at the time of anger.  When he swallows his anger, Allah Almighty fills his chest with Iman.

(Kanz al-‘Ummal Hadeeth No. 5818)

Anger is a Natural Reaction and Sometimes it is Justified:

Anger, by itself, is not bad but one becoming disobedient in Shariah due to one’s anger is impermissible.  It is the sign of a believer to get angry in its time and place.  When one contains his anger to an extent that he is unable to express it when the time arises, then it is not a good sign, for then one loses his self-esteem, and one who loses his self-esteem loses his essence altogether.  Such a person is likened to insects.  Sayyiduna Imam Shafe’i – may Allah be pleased with him – said the following:

If you provoke someone and he does not get angry then he is a donkey

If you are striving to please someone and he does not get pleased, then he is a devil.

(Al-Zawajir Vol. 1, p. 103)

Allah Almighty praises the Sahaba – may Allah be pleased with them – for their staunch and stern nature as follows:

اَذِلَّۃٍ عَلَی الْمُؤْمِنِیۡنَ اَعِزَّۃٍ عَلَی الْکٰفِرِیۡنَ ۫

They are humble towards the Muslims, and stern towards the infidels.

(Al-Ma’idah 5, Verse 54)

مُحَمَّدٌ رَّسُوۡلُ اللہِ ؕ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ مَعَہٗۤ اَشِدَّآءُ عَلَی الْکُفَّارِ رُحَمَآءُ بَیۡنَہُمْ

  Mohammad is the Messenger of Allah and those with him are hard against the infidels and tender among themselves.

(Al-Fat’h 48, Verse 29)

Only the Pious Become Angry for the Sake of Islam:

The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – has stated:

Only the most virtuous and pious people of my Ummah become angry for the sake of Islam.

(Kanz al-‘Ummal Hadeeth No. 5800)

The following has been mentioned in another Hadeeth:

The bearer of the Holy Quran (those well versed in Quran) become angry due to the greatness of Quran that lies in their heart.”

(Kanz al-‘Ummal Hadeeth No. 5799)

Anger for the Right Reason:

Sayyiduna Urwah bin Zubair May Allah be pleased with him narrates that (in his opinion) after Sayyiduna Rasoolullah May Allah send peace and blessings upon him and Hadrat Sayyiduna Abu Bakr May Allah be pleased with him, the most beloved person to Sayyidah Ayesha May Allah be pleased with her was her nephew, Hadrat Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Zubair May Allah be pleased with him. He was also someone who was always ready to be of assistance to the great lady. It was also the blessed habit of the Sayyidah Ayesha May Allah be pleased with her that whatever she received, she used to give this away in charity. She never used to hoard anything or save anything for her own self.

One day, this same nephew, Hadrat Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Zubair May Allah be pleased with him, expressed words that she should be stopped from doing this all the time. When she heard these words, she asked, “Does he wish to restrict my hands.” She swore that she will never speak to him again.

After this, Hadrat Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Zubair May Allah be pleased with him used many eminent people among the Quraish to speak on his behalf and also seek forgiveness on his behalf, but the great lady was not prepared to listen to anyone.

One day, he was told by Hadrat Sayyiduna Abdur Rahman bin Aswad May Allah be pleased with him and Hadrat Sayyiduna Musawwar bin Makhramah May Allah be pleased with him that when they seek permission to meet her, he should also hide himself among them and enter.

This is what happened. They then began to send ten slaves to her and she freed all of them. This continued until nearly forty slaves were freed by the great lady. She also mentioned that if only when she had taken the oath also mentioned the action which should be associated with this oath, then she would have fulfilled this oath. 

(Bukhari Shareef)

Lesson:

  • This Hadith leads to the conclusion that the leader of the people or the Caliph has a right, if situation demands, to give to the new Muslims and other influential and respectable people of the society more than others for their satisfaction and encouragement.
  • The man who raised objection on the distribution of booty by the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – was a hypocrite.
  • Devout Muslims could never think that the Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – could ever be unjust to anyone.
  • This incident teaches of the beautiful Sunnah of the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – to restrain the anger when infuriated.
  • Anger for the sake of Islam is a righteous quality.
  • Sabr is one of the predominant qualities of the Prophets of Allah peace be upon them.
  • Insulting the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – is kufr by consensus of the Muslim Ummah and the one who insults him ought to be killed.
  • It is permissible to report anything of importance to the righteous authority of Islam.
  • Allah loves those who swallow their anger and forgive people.
  • To become angry in Deeni matters is praiseworthy.
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