اِقْرَاۡ بِاسْمِ رَبِّکَ الَّذِیۡ خَلَقَ ۚ﴿۱﴾

Read with the name of your Lord Who created,

Tafsir al-Baghawi                                                        تفسیر البغوی                            

أَكْثَرُ الْمُفَسِّرِينَ: عَلَى أَنَّ هَذِهِ السُّورَةَ أَوَّلُ سُورَةٍ نَزَلَتْ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ، وَأَوَّلُ مَا نَزَلَ خَمْسُ آيَاتٍ مِنْ أَوَّلِهَا إِلَى قَوْلِهِ: مَا لَمْ يَعْلَمْ.

Majority of exegetists are of the opinion that it was the first Surah of the Holy Quran to be revealed, and these were the five first verses till مَا لَمْ يَعْلَمْ. that were revealed.

أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ الْوَاحِدِ الْمَلِيحِيُّ، أَخْبَرَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ النَّعِيمِيُّ، أَخْبَرَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يُوسُفَ، حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ بُكَيْرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا اللَّيْثُ عَنْ عُقَيْلٍ عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ عَنْ عُرْوَةَ بْنِ الزُّبَيْرِ عَنْ عَائِشَةَ أُمِّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنَّهَا قَالَتْ: أَوَّلُ مَا بُدِئَ بِهِ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مِنَ الْوَحْيِ الرُّؤْيَا الصَّالِحَةُ فِي النَّوْمِ، وَكَانَ لَا يَرَى رُؤْيَا إِلَّا جَاءَتْ مِثْلَ فَلَقِ الصُّبْحِ، ثُمَّ حُبِّبَ إِلَيْهِ الْخَلَاءُ، فَكَانَ يَخْلُو بِغَارِ حِرَاءَ، فَيَتَحَنَّثُ فِيهِ -وَهُوَ التَّعَبُّدُ -اللَّيَالِيَ ذَوَاتِ الْعَدَدِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَنْزِعَ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ، وَيَتَزَوَّدُ لِذَلِكَ ثُمَّ يَرْجِعُ إِلَى خَدِيجَةَ، فَيَتَزَوَّدُ لِمِثْلِهَا حَتَّى جَاءَهُ الْحَقُّ، وَهُوَ فِي غَارِ حِرَاءٍ، فَجَاءَهُ الْمَلَكُ فَقَالَ: اقْرَأْ فَقَالَ: مَا أَنَا بِقَارِئٍ، قَالَ: فَأَخَذَنِي فَغَطَّنِي حَتَّى بَلَغَ مِنِّي الْجَهْدَ ثُمَّ أَرْسَلَنِي، فَقَالَ: اقْرَأْ فَقُلْتُ: مَا أَنَا بِقَارِئٍ، [قَالَ: فَأَخَذَنِي] فَغَطَّنِي الثَّانِيَةَ حَتَّى بَلَغَ مِنِّي الْجَهْدَ، ثُمَّ أَرْسَلَنِي، فَقَالَ: اقْرَأْ، فَقُلْتُ: مَا أَنَا بِقَارِئٍ، فَأَخَذَنِي فغطَّني الثَّالِثَةَ [حَتَّى بَلَغَ مِنِّي الْجَهْدَ] ، ثُمَّ أَرْسَلَنِي، فَقَالَ: {اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ خَلَقَ الْإِنْسَانَ مِنْ عَلَقٍ اقْرَأْ وَرَبُّكَ الْأَكْرَمُ}

 فَرَجَعَ بِهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَرْجُفُ فُؤَادُهُ، فَدَخَلَ عَلَى خَدِيجَةَ بِنْتِ خُوَيْلِدٍ، فَقَالَ: زمِّلُونِي زمِّلُونِي فَزَمَّلُوهُ حَتَّى ذَهَبَ عَنْهُ الرَّوْعُ، فَقَالَ لِخَدِيجَةَ: مَا لِي وَأَخْبَرَهَا الْخَبَرَ، وَقَالَ: لَقَدْ خَشِيتُ عَلَى نَفْسِي، فَقَالَتْ خَدِيجَةُ: كَلَّا وَاللَّهِ مَا يُخْزِيكَ اللَّهُ أَبَدًا، إِنَّكَ لِتَصِلُ الرَّحِمَ، وَتَحْمِلُ الْكَلَّ، وَتُكْسِبُ الْمَعْدُومَ، وَتُقِرِي الضَّيْفَ، وَتُعِينُ عَلَى نَوَائِبِ الْحَقِّ فَانْطَلَقَتْ بِهِ خَدِيجَةُ حَتَّى أَتَتْ بِهِ وَرَقَةَ بْنَ نَوْفَلِ بْنِ أَسَدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْعُزَّى -ابْنِ عَمِّ خَدِيجَةَ -وَكَانَ امْرَأً تَنَصَّرَ فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ وَكَانَ يَكْتُبُ الْكِتَابَ الْعَرَبِيَّ، فَيَكْتُبُ مِنَ الْإِنْجِيلِ بِالْعَرَبِيَّةِ مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ أَنْ يَكْتُبَ، وَكَانَ شَيْخًا كَبِيرًا قَدْ عَمِيَ، فَقَالَتْ لَهُ خَدِيجَةُ: يَا ابْنَ عَمِّ، اسْمَعْ مِنِ ابْنِ أَخِيكَ مَا يَقُولُ، فَقَالَ لَهُ وَرَقَةُ: يَا ابْنَ أَخِي مَاذَا تَرَى فَأَخْبَرَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ خَبَرَ مَا رَأَى، فَقَالَ لَهُ وَرَقَةُ: هَذَا النَّامُوسُ الَّذِي أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَى مُوسَى، يَا لَيْتَنِي فِيهَا جَذَعًا، لَيْتَنِي أَكُونُ حَيًّا إِذْ يُخْرِجُكَ قَوْمُكَ، فَقَالَ رسول الله صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: أَوَ مُخْرِجيَّ [هُمْ]  قَالَ: نعم لم  يَأْتِ [أَحَدٌ بِمِثْلِ مَا]  جِئْتَ بِهِ إِلَّا عُودِيَ، وَإِنْ يُدْرِكْنِي يَوْمُكَ أَنْصُرْكَ نَصْرًا مُؤَزَّرَا، ثُمَّ لَمْ يَمْكُثْ  وَرَقَةُ أَنْ تُوُفِّيَ، وَفَتَرَ الْوَحْيُ .

Mother of the believers Sayyidah ‘Ayesha – may Allah be pleased with her – is reported to have said:  The first revelations upon the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – began in the form of true dreams in his sleep.  The dreams he would see would happen in reality like the break of dawn, and then the interest in seclusion was inspired to him.  He started to go into seclusion in the cave of Hira.  He would spend numerous nights in worship without eating before returning to his home even though he took his provision for this purpose (of staying there) and then he would return to Sayyidah Khadeejah – may Allah be pleased with her – and took his provision like before until the truth came to him while he was in the cave of Hira.  The angel came and said, “Read” and he replied, “I am not going to read.”  He says, “The angel held me and squeezed me till I gave up resisting and then he released me and said, ‘Read’ then I said, ‘I am not going to read.’ The angel held me and squeezed me the second time till I gave up resisting and then he released me and said, ‘Read’ then I said, ‘I am not going to read.’ The angel held me and squeezed me the third time till I gave up resisting and then he released me and said, “‘Read in the name of your Lord Who created, created man from a clot.  ‘Read, and your Lord only is the Most Beneficent’.”

The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – returned with it while his heart was still pounding.  He came to Sayyidah Khadeejah bint Khuwailid – may Allah be pleased with her – and said, “Cover me, cover me” and they covered him with the shawl until his fear went away.  He said to Sayyidah Khadeejah – may Allah be pleased with her – and narrated to her the incident and said, “I feared for my life.”  Sayyidah Khadeejah – may Allah be pleased with her – said: No, Allah will never sadden you, you join the hearts, carry the burdens of all, provide for the needy, and welcome the guest, and support the truth.”  Sayyidah Khadeejah – may Allah be pleased with her – walked with him and brought him to Sayyiduna Waraqah ibn Naufal ibn Asad ibn ‘Abd al-‘azza, who was her uncle’s son (cousin).  He had turned to Christianity in the period prior to Islam.  He used to write Arabic and was writing Bible in Arabic as per the Divine will of Allah Almighty but he had become too old and lost his eyesight.  Sayyidah Khadeejah – may Allah be pleased with her – said to him, “O cousin, listen to your cousin friend what he has to say.”  He asked him, “What is it that you see my brother?”  The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – narrated to him what had transpired to him.  Sayyiduna Waraqah – may Allah be pleased with him – said to him, “It is the honour which Allah Almighty bestowed upon Sayyiduna Moosa – peace be upon him.  I wish I was still young.  I wish that I will have been alive when your nation will drive you away.”  The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – said, “Will they drive me out?”  He said, “Yes, whoever came with what you have brought was harmed.  If I witness your era then I will definitely help you.” But after a little while Sayyiduna Waraqah – may Allah be pleased with him – passed away and the revelation of Wahy got discontinued.

Tafsir al-Baghawi (Ma’aalim al-Tanzeel) of Muhiyy al-Sunnah Imam Abu Muhammad Al-Husain ibn Mas’ood al-Baghwi al-Shafe’I t D. 510 A.H.

Tafsir al-Durr al-Manthoor                                                                              تفسیر الدر المنثور                                        

وَأخرج الطَّبَرَانِيّ عَن ثَوْبَان قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُول الله صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم اللَّهُمَّ أعز الإِسلام بعمر بن الْخطاب

 وَقد ضرب أُخْته أول اللَّيْل هِيَ تقْرَأ {اقْرَأ باسم رَبك الَّذِي خلق} حَتَّى ظن أَنه قَتلهَا ثمَّ قَامَ من السحر فَسمع صَوتهَا تقْرَأ {اقْرَأ باسم رَبك الَّذِي خلق} فَقَالَ: وَالله مَا هَذَا بِشعر وَلَا همهمة

فَذهب حَتَّى أَتَى رَسُول الله صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم فَوجدَ بِلَالًا على الْبَاب فَدفع الْبَاب

فَقَالَ بِلَال: من هَذَا فَقَالَ عمر بن الْخطاب

 فَقَالَ: حَتَّى أَسْتَأْذن لَك على رَسُول الله صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم

فَقَالَ بِلَال: يَا رَسُول الله عمر بِالْبَابِ

فَقَالَ رَسُول الله صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم: إِن يرد الله بعمر خيرا أدخلهُ فِي الدّين

فَقَالَ لِبلَال: افْتَحْ وَأخذ رَسُول الله صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم بضبعيه فهزه فَقَالَ: مَا الَّذِي تُرِيدُ وَمَا الَّذِي جِئْت لَهُ

فَقَالَ لَهُ عمر: اعْرِض عليّ الَّذِي تَدْعُو إِلَيْهِ

قَالَ: تشهد أَن لَا إِلَه إِلَّا الله وَحده لَا شريك لَهُ وَأَن مُحَمَّدًا عَبده وَرَسُوله

فَأسلم عمر مَكَانَهُ وَقَالَ: اخْرُج

Imam Tabarani recorded the Hadeeth from Sayyiduna Thauban – may Allah be pleased with them:  The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – supplicated, “O Allah, grant Islam dominance through ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab.”

He beat his sister during the first night while she was reading this verse (Surah Al-‘Alaq, Verse No. 1).  He began to think that he had killed her (this is how severe his beating was).  When he woke up in the morning, he heard her voice reciting this same verse and he said, “I swear by Allah, it is neither poetry nor a humming.”

He went out till he approached the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – and found Sayyiduna Bilal – may Allah be pleased with him – at the entrance and pushed the door.

Sayyiduna Bilal asked:  Who is this?

Sayyiduna ‘Umar replied:  It’s ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab

Sayyiduna Bilal then said:  Let me seek permission from the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – for you.  Sayyiduna Bilal said, “O Allah’s Messenger, ‘Umar is at the entrance.”

The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – said:  If Allah Almighty intends goodness for ‘Umar then He would enter him into the folds of Islam.

He then said to Sayyiduna Bilal:  Open the door.

The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – held him by his arms and shook him and asked Sayyiduna ‘Umar, “What is your intention and what has brought you here?”

Sayyiduna ‘Umar replied:  Teach me towards what you invite people.

He said:  Bear witness that there is none worthy of worship but Allah alone, he has no associates and indeed (Sayyiduna) Muhammad (may Allah send peace and blessings upon him) is His servant and Messenger.

Sayyiduna ‘Umar then embraced Islam at that place and said:  Now we should come out in the open to worship Allah Almighty openly.

Tafsir Al-Durr al-Manthoor Bi al-Tafsir al-Mathoor of Imam Jalaaluddin Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr al-Suyooti al-Shafe’i t D. 911 A.H.

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