Download the entire book in PDF: The Concept of Taqleed in Islam

There is no doubt that we owe a great debt to this great Imam that we present a brief yet concise life story of this eminent Imam so that it removes plenty of misconception that people may have about him. There is also no doubt that in the present climate where the poison of ghair muqallids are spreading and where serious effort is being made to belittle the four Imams, that we educate the Ahle Sunnah wa Jamaah about them. There is also a concerted effort being made to insult this great Imam and give people the impression that he lacked this branch of knowledge and that branch of knowledge.


They also give the false impression that the Hanafi mazhab is merely based on Qiyas and personal opinion and nothing else and is totally against the Sunnah. These misled people have studied just a few Ahadith from the Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim and suddenly begin to call themselves the Ahle Hadith. At the same time, they are also say that it is shirk and misguidance to follow Imam Abu Hanifah May Allah have mercy on him. These are the same people who blindly follow idiots like ibn Taymiyah, ibn Qayyim, ibn Abdul Wahab, Mia Nazeer Husain, Nawab Siddique Hasan, Naasrudeen Albani and Abdullah bin Baaz etc. Yet, in spite of this open misguidance displayed by them, they consider the people who follow the rightly guided Imams as been misled and being blind followers of ordinary scholars.


They fail to realise that the period of the great Imam from the time of the Holy Prophet peace be upon him is less than a hundred years. This is that period in which some of the greatest service to Islam was performed by its followers barring the blessed period of the Ashaab. This is that period which was also foretold by the Holy Prophet peace be upon him. This is also that period in which Fiqh as we know it, Usul Fiqh and the various subsidiary issues of Fiqh were collated and answered. Yet, these ghair muqallids are following people who were born years later and still they consider these ignoramuses as very learned individuals. In this article, the subject would be the status of the great Imam and his service to Islam in the field of Ijtihad.


We make the dua which a famous person once made and which is, “We are not pious but we love and revere the pious with the hope that the Almighty through the barakah of these people also make us pious.”


His name and family

His name is Nu’man and title is Abu Hanifah and the name of his father is Thaabit. It is mentioned that his family originated from Kabul, Afghanistan and his grandfather’s name was either Zuta or Zouti. He was captured in a battle with the Muslims and brought to Kufah. He then accepted Islam and became a successful business person in this part of the world. He also met Hadrat Sayyiduna Ali May Allah have mercy on him and there was a strong connection between them. In fact, this relationship was so strong that at times, he used to also send gifts to the leader of the Muslims. (Manaaqib Al Imam Al Azam. Al Karadari. 1/25,26).


His son Thaabit also did business in Kufah and we also know through the great Imam that his father owned a few shops in this town. (Manaaqib Imam Azam. Al Muwaffiq bin Ahmed. 1/162).


His birth and demise

There are various opinions on his exact year of birth. Some say, 61 ah, 70 ah, 77 a and 80 ah. Khateeb Baghdad in the Taarikh Baghdad from Mazaahim bin Daud quotes the year 61 ah. And the report from Abu Naeem is 80 ah. (Taarikh Baghdad). However, it seems that the correct year should be 77 ah. The reason for this is a report which is mentioned by his famous student Imam Abu Yusuf May Allah have mercy on him who narrates that the great Imam one day mentioned to him, “I went for Hajj with my father in 93 ah, At that time, I was sixteen years old. I then saw an old person around whom there was a large crowd. I then asked my father the identity of this person and he replied that this was the blessed companion of the Holy Prophet peace be upon him namely Hadrat Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Haarith bin Juz’a May Allah have mercy on him and I then asked him what this person had with him. My father mentioned that he had in his possession the Ahadith of the Holy Prophet peace be upon him which he had heard from the Holy Prophet peace be upon him. I then asked him to take me to him so that I can also hear these Ahadith. After this, my father approached the blessed companion walking through the other people that were around him until we reached him. I then heard him saying, ‘That person who acquires understanding in religion, the Almighty will protect him and his concerns and will give him sustenance through those sources which he has not even thought about.” There is also difference of opinion in which month he passed away. Ibn Kalakan has mentioned the month of Rajab or the month of Sha’baan. His year of passing is also recorded as 150 ah. and 153 ah. However, the former is more accepted. His age at the time of his passing was seventy three. This clearly proves that he was born in 77 ah and passed away in the 150 ah.


His acquisition of knowledge:

He mentions, “At first, I studied various branches of knowledge such as Qirah, hadith, Arabic grammar, adab and kalaam. These were those faculties which were famous in that period.” (Manaaqib Imam Azam. Al Muwaafiq bin Ahmed Makki. 57,58). After this, he attained a very high status in Kalaam and he attained such a high level in this field that people started to take notice of him. Al Muwaffiq narrates from Yahya bin Shaybaan that the great Imam once mentioned, “I was a person who had attained a level in the field of Ilmul Kalaam and was also an expert in the art of debate. There was a time when I had spent a long time in debate and discussion and because these people were mostly in Basrah, I went on many occasions to this city. I sometimes spent nearly six months in this city and used to debate the Khaariji and various other misled groups and since I was so learned in this field, I was under the impression that this was the foundation of religion.


However, one day, I began to think that these things which were discussed and debated were not hidden from the Holy Prophet peace be upon him and his blessed companions and even among the Taaba’een and yet, in spite of them knowing these things, they displayed no attraction towards it. I also realized that the Holy Prophet peace be upon him and his blessed companions and the generation after them spent most of their time speaking about matters of religion. They also hadvgatherings which specifically only dealt with religious issues and they left the world only speaking about this and this was followed by the Taaba’een. And when I realised this, I left the field of Munaazirah (or debate) and also desisted from delving further into the field of Ilmul Kalaam and choose the path of the pious people in Islam and also began to sit among the people  of Ma’rifah”.


This also proves that even in this period, he had immense knowledge of Islam or else he would not have entered this field of Kalaam and debate. After all, the main foundation of these debates were philosophy and logic and religion. If a person is not learned in these fields, how would he be able to debate. Later in life when we see the manner in which he was able to delve into the very fine details of religion and be able to acquire solutions, give us the impression that these years as a great debater certainly helped him further.


After leaving this field, he began to only concentrate on Islamic law and this was reported by his eminent student, Imam Zufur May Allah have mercy on him. He narrates that the great Imam mentioned, “My status grew to such a degree in the field of Ilmul Kalaam that people began to actually point fingers at me, (in other words, people began to notice him wherever he walked). My classes in this field was also next to Imam Hammaad May Allah have mercy on him. One day a lady approached me and asked what did I have to say about that person who has a female slave and this person wishes to give his wife talaq in the proper manner. How many talaqs should he give his wife. I then informed this lady that she should approach Imam Hammaad May Allah have mercy on him and ask him this question and whatever answer he gave her, she should also inform me about this answer.


She then approached me and then revealed to me that he had to mentioned her that, ‘When the wife becomes clean from haiz, the husband should not sleep with his wife and he should then give her one talaq and stay away from his wife. When the wife experiences another period of haiz and then becomes clean from this, still the husband should stay away from her without sleeping with her and then give the second talaq. When she experiences the third period of haiz and becomes clean from this, then she would have removed herself from this marriage. The choice is upon you to choose whichever option you wish. When I heard this reply, I then picked up my shoes and decided to sit in the blessed classes of Imam Hammad May Allah have mercy on him. I then started to learn whatever he taught and it was his habit that the next morning, he used to revise the lessons which he had taught the previous day. Many of the students were unable to remember some of the finer points of that lesson but through the Divine Help of the Almighty azza wa jall, I did not make a mistake in any of these lessons. Imam Hammad May Allah have mercy on him then allowed me to sit near him.” (Taarikh Al Baghdadi. 13/333).


Although while he was acquiring the knowledge of Fiqh, he never involved himself in debate, yet, there were a few occasions when he was called upon to debate with certain Shias and Khaarijis. One of these debates occurred between him and a khaariji and he was able to prove that a person who becomes guilty of drinking alcohol and adultery does not leave the folds of Islam. This had such an impact on the person that he later made taubah and accepted the belief of the Ahle Sunnah wa Jamaah. There is hardly any words which can be used to describe his immense intellectual qualities and brilliance. One of the greatest praises which can be attributed to him is that his presence and appearance was also foretold by the Holy Prophet peace be upon him.


In the Hashiyah of the Al Muwaahib the student of Imam Jalaaludeen Suyutwi Shafi May Allah have mercy on him, namely Allamah Shaami May Allah have mercy on him has stated that, “That person on which my Shaikh was certain about (who is indicated in this hadith shareef) was none other than Abu Hanifah May Allah have mercy on him. There is also no place for doubt in this as well because from the children of Persia, no one had attained his status”.


Allamah ibn Hajr Haythimi Shafi May Allah have mercy on him in the Al Khayraat Al Hasan also states that, “This is a clear miracle of the Holy Prophet peace be upon him that he was able to inform us about issues in the future.”


In fact his blessed being possessed all the knowledge which was required by a Mujtahid to such a degree that he was considered as one of the foremost of Mujtahid Mutlaq. If we want to understand the immense knowledge of Imam Abu Hanifah May Allah have mercy on him we have to inspect the qualities which he needs to possess according to Imam Mohammed Ghazzali Shafi May Allah have mercy on him. He writes, “One of the conditions of a Mujtahid is that his knowledge needs to encompass all the branches of Islamic knowledge. And he needs to also delve deeply into this so that he can extract a certain law. At the same time, when he is busy doing this, he needs to be aware of those issues which are first and those which come after. Another condition is that he needs to be extremely pious and noble and someone who refrains from committing sins which can make him lose his respect and which would go against his pious state.


In Shariah knowledge, he needs to be aware of the knowledge of the Quran, the sunnah of the Holy Prophet peace be upon him, the Ijmah and have the intellectual capacity to be able to extract laws. By knowledge of the Quran, it does not mean that he should know every verse of the Quran. He should know those verses which refer to Islamic law and these are about five hundred verses and it is also not necessary that he memorizes these verses but he should know where in the Quran these verses appear so that in times of need, he can be able to find them. In like manner when we say that he needs to be an Alim of hadith, it does not mean that he needs to have memorized all the ahadith but that he should know those ahadith in which there are religious commands. In other words, in Sunan Abu Daud or Sunan Bahiqi which are those ahadith which possess commands in them so that in times of need, he would be able to find them.


When it comes to Ijmah, it means that the Mujtahid needs to know on which issues there was already an Ijmah so that his decision does not go against an Ijmah. He also needs to know in which time a certain issue arose and whether there was Ijmah on this issue before or not. He needs to also be aware of all knowledge pertaining to intellectual branches and also be aware of those issues which appear in both the Quran and Ahadith. He must be a complete master in the Arabic language and be fully aware of the laws of grammar in this regard. It does not mean that he needs to be like Zamakshari or Asma’i or Khaleel or Sebewiyah but have enough language to be able to decipher the words and letters of the Quran and hadith according to the laws of grammar so that this can be fully understood. He needs to be able to prove through his intellectual capabilities that the creation is mortal, the Almighty does exist, that the Almighty is Waajibul Wujud and is One.


He needs to prove the necessity of Prophet hood, the various dimensions and special qualities of the Quran. The greatness of Prophet hood, that he is the final Prophet and this through recorded evidence and intellectual qualities etc.” (Abridged). The list of qualities which a Mujtahid needs to possess goes on and on. Yet, such is the stupidity of the ghair muqallid who does not not even know the basics of salah, yet, every Tom, Dick and Harry among these people are Mujtahids. If some of these branches of knowledge had to be put to them we are sure that some of them would not even be aware of what the meaning of some of these branches are.


His status among the eminent.

There is no doubt that eminent scholars and saints have heaped many praises on him and have praised his immense status and stature in the field of Fiqh and Ijtihad.


Imam Mohammed bin Idris Shafi May Allah have mercy on him states, “In Fiqh, people are in need of Abu Hanifah May Allah have mercy on him.” He has also stated that, “He who wishes to acquire the knowledge of Fiqh, then he should hold on to shawl of Imam Abu Hanifah May Allah have mercy on him and his students.” It is also mentioned that when he arrived in Baghdad shareef, he visited the blessed grave of Imam Abu Hanifah May Allah have mercy on him and performed two rakah of salah. He also did not raise his hands in Raf’a Yadain. In one report, it is mentioned that he performed the Fajr salah in this place and did not read the Dua-e-Qunoot. Someone asked him the reason for this, (pointing at the grave of Imam Abu Hanifah May Allah have mercy on him) he replied, “Due to respect for that Imam; I do not wish that in his presence, I perform an act against his mazhab.”


Once Imam Shafi May Allah have mercy on him asked Imam Malik May Allah have mercy on him about his opinion of Imam Abu Hanifah May Allah have mercy on him and he replied, “I saw such an amazing person in him that if he wanted to prove that this pillar was gold, he would be prove it with evidence.”


Hadrat Fudail bin Ayyaz May Allah have mercy on him stated, “Sufficient to describe the greatness of Imam Abu Hanifah May Allah have mercy on him is that he was a certainly a famous jurist and a person of immense piety and fear (for Allah).”


Another has said that people were unaware of Fiqh until they were awoken by Imam Abu Hanifah May Allah have mercy on him.


Hadrat Abdullah ibn Mubaarak May Allah have mercy on him has stated that, “no one is more entitled than Imam Abu Hanifah May Allah have mercy on him that he should be followed. He was extremely pious, noble, a person who had immense fear for Allah and an eminent jurist. He revealed knowledge in such a manner which others could not.”


Hadrat Imam Ahmed bin Hambal May Allah have mercy on him said about him, “He was someone who was extremely pious and had immense knowledge and had absolutely no interest in the world. He was also someone who had such inclination towards the hereafter that no one else could achieve. During the time of Mansur, he was forced to accept the position of Qadi but refused. He was severely punished but refused to accept this position until his last moment in this world”.


One of the teachers of Imam Bukhari May Allah have mercy on him namely Makki bin Ebrahim May Allah have mercy on him says, “He was one of the greatest scholars of his era.” Hadrat Mu’ammar May Allah have mercy on him says, “I have never seen someone who spoke in such classical Arabic. He was a master in Qiyas and the sharah of the Hadith.”


Another eminent scholar, Hadrat Abdullah ibn Mubaarak May Allah have mercy on him states, “If the Almighty had not helped me through Imam Sufyan Thouri and Imam Abu Hanifah May Allah have mercy on them then I would have remained among the common people.” He has also said that if he had not met the great Imam, he would have carried on his normal wordily trade. He has also mentioned that if Imam Abu Hanifah May Allah have mercy on him did not appear, he would have been among the people of Bid’ah.


When people used to ask him any question, he used to reply, “Hadrat Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas’ud May Allah have mercy on him replied in this manner and Imam Abu Hanifah May Allah have mercy on him replied in this manner.” When people asked him surprisingly, “You are mentioning Abu Hanifah with ibn Mas’ud May Allah have mercy on them?” He used to reply, “If you had seen Abu Hanifah, you would have seen a very great person.”


Hadrat Sufyan Thouri May Allah have mercy on him once remarked, “In front of Abu Hanifah May Allah have mercy on him we were like little birds in front of a hawk. No doubt, he was the leader of the Ulama.”

Hadrat Jafer bin Rabee stated, “I spent five years in the blessed company of Abu Hanifah May Allah have mercy on him and I have never seen anyone who remained so silent for such a long time. If any question was asked of him, (in answering this question), it was like an ocean has just been released.”


Imam Abu Hanifah and the Quran:

He displayed immense attachment to the Quran. Qadi Abu Abdullah Sameeri narrates from Khaarijah bin Mas’ab that Imam Abu Hanifah May Allah have mercy on him used to complete the entire Quran in one single rakah. He also explains that there were Imams who completed the entire Quran in front of the Kaba. They were Hadrat Sayyiduna Uthman bin Affan, Hadrat Sayyiduna Tameem Daari, Hadrat Sayyiduna Saeed bin Zubair and Hadrat Sayyiduna Abu Hanifah May Allah have mercy on them.”


Imam Abu Hanifah and Hadith.

As we have explained the conditions required for a Mujtahid and also explained that one of the conditions is that he has to have a wide and expansive knowledge of the Hadith. However, even in this field, he was an expert. Bear in mind that during his time, hadith as a faculty was in its infant state and many people were delivering discourses in hadith. In fact, such was Kufah as the centre of learning, that even Imam Bukhari May Allah have mercy on him admits he had lost count of how many times he had gone to Kufah. Among the Mashaa’ikh in hadith was also Imam Shubah bin Yusuf whom Imam Sufyan Thouri May Allah have mercy on him refers to as the Ameerul Mo’mineen in Hadith.


Hadrat Imam Shafi May Allah have mercy on him also admits that if Imam Shubah May Allah have mercy on him was not present, then hadith would not have been so widespread in Iraq. When news of his passing reached Imam Sufyan Thouri May Allah have mercy on him he remarked, “Today hadith has died.” Yet, even this eminent Imam of hadith once said about his student, “As I am a certain that the sun is bright, in like manner, I am absolutely certain that Abu Hanifah and knowledge are very close companions.” He was also given permission by this teacher of his to narrate hadith.


Besides meeting and learning hadith from eminent Muhadditheen in Kufah and Barsah, he was also honoured to meet one of the most learned authorities in hadith during the Taaba’een period, namely Hadrat Sayyiduna Ataa bin Rabaah May Allah have mercy on him. This eminent scholar was based in Mecca shareef. He had met over two hundred Ashaab notably among them, Hadrat Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Abbas, Hadrat Sayyiduna ibn Umar, Hadrat Sayyiduna Usaamah, Hadrat Sayyiduna Jabir and Hadrat Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah May Allah have mercy on them. In fact, although he was not a blessed companion yet, such was his eminence, that the blessed companion Hadrat Sayyiduna ibn Umar May Allah have mercy on him used to say to people, “When a person like Ataa is present, why do people come to me?” During the time of Hajj, the government had also made it clear that besides Hadrat Sayyiduna Ataa May Allah have mercy on him, no one else should issue a fatwah.


When the young Imam Abu Hanifah May Allah have mercy on him arrived in Mecca shareef, very soon, he became the favourite of this eminent scholar of hadith and whenever he arrived in Mecca shareef, he used to always come to the class of this eminent teacher. In Mecca shareef, he also learned hadith from Hadrat Sayyiduna Akramah May Allah have mercy on him who was the student of among others, Hadrat Sayyiduna Ali and Hadrat Sayyiduna ibn Umar May Allah have mercy on them.


When Imam Abu Hanifah May Allah have mercy on him arrived in Madina shareef, of the seven famous jurists in this blessed city, two of them were still alive. They were Hadrat Sulayman May Allah have mercy on him who was the one time slave of Ummul Mo’mineen, Hadrat Sayyidah Maymunah May Allah have mercy on her. The other was Hadrat Saalim May Allah have mercy on him who was the grandson of Hadrat Umar May Allah have mercy on him and the son of Hadrat Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Umar May Allah have mercy on him. The great Imam also learned hadith from these eminent scholars and from other scholars of hadith in this blessed city. (Nuzhatul Qari. 1/120,122).


Allamah ibn Hajr Haythimi Shafi May Allah have mercy on him mentions that, “Hadrat Imam Azam May Allah have mercy on him learned hadith from nearly four thousand Mashaa’ikh who were also among the Aimmah among the Taaba’een. This is one of the reasons that people like Imam Zahbi May Allah have mercy on him has included him among the Muhaditheen.” He writes further, “Those who claim that he knew very little hadith are people who have displayed no knowledge in this regard or mentioned these words out of jealousy. How can this be possible for someone who was able to extract thousands of fiqh issues and is the first person who was able to extract these issues from evidence in front of him. This has also been mentioned by his students in their books. The actual truth is that he was extremely involved in extracting laws pertaining to numerous issues and this is the reason that not many of his narrations are to be found”.


This is the same with Hadrat Sayyiduna Abu Bakr and Hadrat Umar May Allah have mercy on them who have very few narrations attributed to them. Both were extremely busy in the affairs of the state and the well being of its citizens. At the same time, there were many narrations which were conveyed by Ashaab who were lower than them in rank and knowledge. This is the same with Hadrat Imam Malik and Hadrat Imam Shafi May Allah have mercy on them. You will find very few narrations attributed to them because of how busy they were compared to others in their era who were only involved in the faculty of hadith. The both Imams were extremely busy in extracting various laws and subsequent issues pertaining to these laws.


One of the greatest evidence of Imam Abu Hanifah May Allah have mercy on him being among the Muhadditheen is when one looks at the amount of issues in Hanafi fiqh which were extracted from the Ahadith. If one wishes to prove this point, all he has to do is look at such masterpieces as Ma’aani yul Asaar of Imam Tahaawi, the Umadatul Qari of Allamah Badrudeen Aini, the Fathul Qadeer of Allamah Kamaaludeen ibn Hummaam, the Sharah Hidaayah, the Fathul Minaan of Shaikh Abdul Haq Muhaditth Dehlwi. At the same time, one just has to look at Fatawah Radawiyyah if one is unable to see any of the other books mentioned.


His service in the field of Ijtihad.

Two of his greatest contribution among numerous others was the accumulation of the knowledge of shariah and having it properly recorded and the second important task was to be able to create a consultative assembly made up of the best brains at the time in the field of shariah law. For us to understand this, we need to understand the conditions in the time of the Khulafah Raashideen.


The era of the Khulafah Raashideen was not just an ordinary government, it was an extension of the blessed mission of the Holy Prophet peace be upon him. Its main responsibility was to run the country, maintain peace and protect the borders. It was a government which protected the rights of the Muslims who lived in it. One of its main objectives was also to make sure that everything went according to Islamic rules. In fact we can also say that besides being the khilaafat-e-raashidah, it was also khilaafat-e-murshidah in other words, a guide for the people who lived in it. However as this blessed period ended, divisions began to appear in political power and this power was also divided into political leadership and religious leadership. Political power rested in the hands of governors and rulers and religious power rested with the Ulama. In fact, most of the people in political power had no interest in what was haraam and what was halaal, what was permissible and what was not.


Assimilation and compilation of religious laws.

One of the great contribution of the great Imam was to be able to create a set of religious laws for the people that lived within the Muslim state. After one century had elapsed, the damage which had occurred within the various Muslims is known to most people. At the same time, the border of Islamic might stretched from Spain to Sindh and various nations had entered the fold of Islam. Suddenly, there was a great need to address issues facing Muslims such as the Muslim lifestyle, financial needs of people, business, trade, marriage issues, issues dealing with military affairs etc.


Also bear in mind that new converts to Islam from other countries also brought is own challenges in the form of new ideas, new standards of living and new customs and behaviour. Suddenly the Muslims had to have a system of laws which would be able to guide them forward. Another important point is that there was no set constitution available on which Muslims could determine their different issues. There had to be a set of rules and regulations which could be upheld by both Muslims and the government which controlled these lands. This shortage was certainly felt by both the state and the public at large and also to the religious leaders as well.

This is when the great Imam felt that  something needed to done as quick as possible to guide the Muslims on their religious path and also this had to be completely separate from government influence and interference. Of course, this could only be undertaken by someone who had the knowledge, the acumen and respect within the community to achieve this. This also had to be something the general public accepted and the government which controlled at that time. He also understood the dangers if this was not done as quick as possible and the great danger which lay in front of the Muslims in the years to come. He then arranged the consultative forum among his students and various other experts in different fields to fulfil this task. There were about thirty six members in the forum. Such was the immense knowledge of this forum that it is mentioned that twenty of them had the qualities of being a Chief Justice. Six of them had the qualities of issuing an Islamic decree and two of them had the quality of actually preparing a Qadi and Mufti.  (Al Manaaqib Imam Azam – Al Muwaffiq).


Such was the state of this consultative forum and that Hadrat Imam Abdullah bin Mubaarak May Allah have mercy on him narrates, “Once, this forum continued to deliberate on an issue for three days and on the third day when I heard the azaan, I realized that they had completed their discussion”. As each issue was discussed and finalized, it was then recorded. When it had completed its task, in some reports it is mentioned that nearly eighty three thousand issues were discussed and recorded. At the same time, if there were issues which had not yet appeared again; this was presented as an example and then a solution was found for it. At the same time, by the great Imam dividing all of these issues into different chapters and then including all the issues within this chapter, this became a standard for all jurists in the future and was also followed by Imam Malik and Imam Shafi May Allah have mercy on them.


Finally, after the complete process was completed, he had a special meeting with his students and well wishers and gave them strict instruction and advice. He mentioned, “You are those who have been the cause of my joy and have removed immense sorrow from me. I have placed the reins of Fiqh upon your shoulders and I am hopeful that people will follow you and your example. As for those among you who will be Qadis of the future, let him have fear for Allah when he makes his decision. Please respect this knowledge which has been given to you so that others will also respect it. Do not lower yourselves by being bribed by others into selling this immense Amaanah which has been given to you.”


As we have said, some of his students were qualified Mujtahids in their own right and had gained this quality from their respected Imam. It is said that he had numerous students.


Sadly, since he was not prepared to accept the position of Qadi offered to him by Mansur, he was publicly humiliated and punished. He was also whipped in public and in his last moments, he was given poison and this is how he was martyred. Some reports indicate that he passed away in a state of being in sajdah and other reports give another account. Suffice to say that his immense contribution to Islam and the Muslims will always be remembered until the day of Judgement.