Download PDF: [S] The Conquest of Mecca
On the occasion of Hijrah, the Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – left his home with immense sadness and after joining his beloved friend, Hadrat Sayyiduna Abu Bakr – may Allah be pleased with him, he continued on his blessed migration. This was during the darkness of night. The Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – then turned around and looking at the Ka’ba in sadness, he remarked, “O Mecca! I swear by Allah Almighty I have love for you more than any other city and if my people had not removed me, I would have never left you.”
No one at that moment could even envisage that within a span of only eight years, the Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – will enter this city at the head of one of the largest army of that era as a conquering hero. No one even thought at that time, that the Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – would once again enter this blessed city and be able to place his blessed head in Sajdah without anyone telling him anything.
However, the disbelievers broke the treaty of Hudaybiyah and broke the pact which existed between them and the Muslims. They killed without mercy certain members of the Bani Quzaa’i who had a special agreement with the Muslims and when these members entered the Haram to protect themselves, they were slaughtered without any mercy. At that time, the disbelievers of Mecca Shareef had already written their own destiny.
With the result on the 10th of Ramadaan A.H. the Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – left Madina Shareef at the head of any army of nearly ten thousand Muslims. At that time, all the Muslims were also fasting. When the Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – reached a place called Kadeed, he asked for some water and while he was sitting on his camel he drank this water in front of all of the Muslims signifying that they could not break their fast. Thereafter, since they were now in a state of Jihad and travel, they were ordered not to keep fast. (Bukhari Shareef, Zarqani, Seerat-e-Ibn Hishaam)
The founder of the Ka’ba once more returns.
They entered this blessed city in immense power and awe and ordered the flag of Islam be hoisted at a place called Hujun which is Jannatul M’ala. Hadrat Sayyiduna Khalid bin Waleed – may Allah be pleased with him – was also instructed to take a battalion and enter via the mount of Kadda. (Bukhari Shareef)
The first words the Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – mentioned as he entered Mecca Shareef was that whoever surrenders his weapons, he will be spared. Whoever closes the doors of his house, he will be in safety. Whoever enters the Ka’ba, he will also be spared. At that moment also, Hadrat Sayyiduna Abbas – may Allah be pleased with him – also informed him, “O Prophet of Allah Almighty! Abu Sufyan seems to have some self-respect and therefore, there should be some act by which he can also have some pride.”
The Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – then announced that whoever enters the house of Abu Sufyan he will also be spared.
When the Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – entered Mecca Shareef in this glorious day of victory he was riding his camel “Qaswa”. The Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – was also wearing a black turban. On one side, there was Hadrat Sayyiduna Abu Bakr – may Allah be pleased with him – and on the other side was Hadrat Sayyiduna Usaid bin Huzair – may Allah be pleased with him. Around him, stood the most firm individuals in creation who were fully armed.
In spite of this great entrance, it is mentioned that the Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – displayed such humility that while on his camel he bowed to such an extent that his blessed head nearly touched the front portion of the camel’s saddle. All the while, he was also reciting Surah Fatah. This was his immense display of gratitude in the Divine Court of Allah Almighty. (Zarqani)
The Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – also allowed Hadrat Sayyiduna Usaaman bin Zaid – may Allah be pleased with him – to sit behind him as he went towards the Ka’ba Shareef. He was accompanied by Hadrat Sayyiduna Bilal – may Allah be pleased with him – and Hadrat Sayyiduna Uthman bin Talha – may Allah be pleased with him. He then went around the Ka’ba Shareef and kissed the Hajre Aswad. (Bukhari Shareef)
Truth has come and falsehood perished.
Inside the Ka’ba there were three hundred and sixty idols which were placed all around. He personally took his blessed walking stick and began to bring one by one of these idols to the ground. The Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – also kept reading the verse “truth has come and falsehood perished.” (Bukhari Shareef)
All of these idols were then thrown out of the Ka’ba. He then entered the Ka’ba accompanied by Hadrat Sayyiduna Usaamah bin Zaid, Hadrat Sayyiduna Bilal and Hadrat Sayyiduna ‘Uthman bin Talha – may Allah be pleased with them. All of them then recited the Takbeer and recited two rak’ah of Salaah. (Bukhari Shareef)
When the Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – exited the Ka’ba, he then called Uthman bin Talha – may Allah be pleased with him – and gave him the keys of the Ka’ba. He told him, “The keys of the Ka’ba will always remain with you people and only those will steal it from you who are oppressors.” (Zarqani)
The Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – then called a general meeting with everyone present in the Haram Shareef. Besides the Muslims, there were also many other people who had not yet accepted Islam. He then asked them, “Do you know how I am going to treat you people today?”
When he said these words, all those who still remained his enemies were terrified at what his reply would be. All they could reply was that, “You are our brother who is Kareem and the son of a Kareem”.
When the Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – heard these words, he declared, “Today, there will be no retribution. Go! All of you are free.”
Many of them began to weep in joy and from every part of the Haram the Kalimah was heard.
There are various opinions on the exact day when the city of Mecca Shareef was conquered by the Muslims. Imam Bahiqi – may Allah be pleased with him – is of the opinion that it was the 13th of Ramadaan, Imam Muslim – may Allah be pleased with him – says it was the 16th of Ramadaan, Imam Ahmed – may Allah be pleased with him – says it was the 18th of Ramadaan.
However, Mohammed bin Ishaaq – may Allah be pleased with him – has reported from a large group of eminent elders that it was on the 20th of Ramadaan and it was the 8th year of Hijrah. Allah Almighty knows best. (Zarqani)
People entered Islam in their thousands.
Pertaining to the victory of Mecca Shareef, the Qur’an states in Surah Nasr:
اِذَا جَآءَ نَصْرُ اللہِ وَ الْفَتْحُ ۙ﴿۱﴾ وَ رَاَیۡتَ النَّاسَ یَدْخُلُوۡنَ فِیۡ دِیۡنِ اللہِ اَفْوَاجًا ۙ﴿۲﴾ فَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّکَ وَ اسْتَغْفِرْہُ ؕؔ اِنَّہٗ کَانَ تَوَّابًا ٪﴿۳﴾
“When the help and victory of Allah come, And you see people entering the religion of Allah in multitudes, Then proclaim the Purity of your Lord while praising Him, and seek forgiveness from Him; indeed He is the Most Acceptor of Repentance.”
There is no example in history where a person entering a city after being persecuted for such a long time would have behaved in the manner in which the Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – behaved. Until the present day, no example of this has ever been found. Bear in mind that these were the same people that used to throw dirt and stones on him. They were people who tried many times to assassinate him. These were the people who had broken his blessed tooth and took great joy in insulting him. These were those people who had struck his blessed daughter with a spear and she fell from a camel and because of this, she suffered a miscarriage.
These were those people who tried many times to destroy Madina Shareef. These were those people who had dishonoured the blessed body of his beloved uncle, Hadrat Sayyiduna Hamza bin Abdul Mutallib – may Allah be pleased with him. These were those people who had persecuted his most beloved companions such as Hadrat Sayyiduna Bilal, Hadrat Sayyiduna Suhaib, Hadrat Sayyiduna Ammar – may Allah be pleased with them – and many other eminent Muslims. Some of them were thrown into fire, some were hanged, and some were left in the hot burning sand of the desert. And yet, all of these people are standing among the Muhaajirun and Ansaar and are terrified at what is going to happen to them. They were also thinking that they were outnumbered by the Muslims and that certainly today was going to be a day of immense retribution where they were going to slaughtered in large numbers.
Yet, the blessed words of the Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – made all of them go into a great sense of shock when he mentioned that he had pardoned all of them. There is no doubt that this unmatched example of the Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – is itself an example that he is certainly an unmatched creation and an unmatched Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him.
Muslims should practise of these principles.
This should be behaviour of the Muslims when they gain power. Instead of creating more strife in the world, they should practise forgivingness and pardon those who oppress them.
This amazing sense of forgiveness and mercy has always being a Sunnah. This is the reason that the Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – once mentioned, “He who breaks off relationship with you, then join this person. He who oppresses you, forgive that person. He who acts badly with you, be kind to him.” In the Qur’an also, Muslims have been advised to display mercy and kindness. The Qur’an also advises us that those who pardon others are certainly people who are close to the Allah Almighty.
What happened to the people of the Elephant?
This famous tyrant was called Abraha and he was of the opinion that instead of coming to the Ka’ba, people should visit his temple in San’a. When the Quraish heard about this, they were greatly perturbed. One of them secretly went to this person’s temple and messed all over the walls of this temple. When Abraha saw this he felt extremely embarrassed and angered and he decided that the Ka’ba should be destroyed.
When Abraha entered the precincts of Mecca, he first decided to capture all the domestic animals of the tribes around Mecca and among this was also the camels of Abdul Mutallib – may Allah be pleased with him. Abraha also had in his lead a mighty elephant which he had named Mahmud.
Abdul Mutallib – may Allah be pleased with him – was also in charge of the Ka’ba and also the leader of the Quraish. He was an extremely powerful looking person and had a great awe about him.
When he approached Abraha, he asked that his camels be returned to him. Abraha was obviously shocked and mentioned to him that since he was the leader of the Quraish and knew that he had come to destroy the Ka’ba, yet he mentioned nothing about the impending destruction of the Ka’ba. However, Abdul Mutallib – may Allah be pleased with him – replied, “I am the owner of these camels, hence I can only ask about the camels. As for the Ka’ba, its Owner will protect it Himself.”
When Abdul Mutallib – may Allah be pleased with him – returned to the Haram, he informed the Quraish that they should hide in the nearby caves and mountains. Abdul Mutallib – may Allah be pleased with him – then held the door of the Ka’ba and wept and made sincere Du’a to Allah Almighty. After he had made Du’a, he also joined his people on the mountains.
In the morning, Abraha ordered his elephants to attack Mecca but his lead elephant refused to walk towards the Ka’ba. Suddenly, a flock of birds appeared from the direction of the sea and they had three pebbles with them. As these pebbles fell on these people and the elephants, they fell with such ferocity that they tore through the bodies of these elephants and actually fell to the ground. It is also said that the name of each person was written on each pebble that fell on that particular person. The year on which event took place is also referred to as the Year of the Elephant.
Fifty days after this event, the Holy Prophet – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him – was also born. (Khazaa’inul Irfaan)
This event is also mentioned in Surah Feel in the Qur’an.
اَلَمْ تَرَ کَیۡفَ فَعَلَ رَبُّکَ بِاَصْحٰبِ الْفِیۡلِ ؕ﴿۱﴾ اَلَمْ یَجْعَلْ کَیۡدَہُمْ فِیۡ تَضْلِیۡلٍ ۙ﴿۲﴾ وَّ اَرْسَلَ عَلَیۡہِمْ طَیۡرًا اَبَابِیۡلَ ۙ﴿۳﴾ تَرْمِیۡہِمۡ بِحِجَارَۃٍ مِّنۡ سِجِّیۡلٍ ﴿۴﴾۪ۙ فَجَعَلَہُمْ کَعَصْفٍ مَّاۡکُوۡلٍ ٪﴿۵﴾
“O dear Prophet (Mohammed – peace and blessings be upon him), did you not see how did your Lord deal with the People of the Elephant? Did He not put their scheme into ruin? And send flocks of birds upon them, Which hit them with stones of baked clay, So He made them like the leftover devoured leaves of farms?”
From this, we also come to realise that as Allah Almighty had promised protection for the Qur’an, in like manner, He will also protect the Ka’ba. No creation can destroy the Qur’an or the Ka’ba. Allah Almighty knows best.