Download PDF: Riyaadus Saaliheen – Hadith #5 (Virtues of Charity)
An interesting decision of the beloved Prophet Sallal Laahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam about charity!
عَنْ اَبِیْ یَزِیْدَ مَعْنِ بْنِ یَزِیْدَ بْنِ الْاخْنَسِ رَضِیَ اللہُ عَنْہُمْ وَھُوَوَاَبُوْہٗ وَجَدُّہٗ صَحَابِیُّوْنَ، قَالَ: کَانَ اَبِیْ، یَزِیدُ اَخْرَجَ دَنَانِیرَ یَتَصَدَّقُ بِہَا فَوَضَعَہَا عِنْدَ رَجُلٍ فِی الْمَسْجِدِ فَجِئْتُ فَاَخَذْ تُہَا فَاَتَیْتُہٗ بِہَا، فَقَالَ: وَاللہِ! مَا اِیَّاکَ اَرَدْتُ ، فَخَاصَمْتُہٗ اِلٰی رَسُوْلِ اللہِ صَلَّی اللہُ عَلَیْہِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ:’’لَکَ مَا نَوَیْتَ یَا یَزِیدُ! وَلَکَ مَا اَخَذْتَ یَا مَعْنُ۔‘‘رَوَاہُ الْبُخَارِیُّ۔
(بخاری، کتاب الزکاۃ، باب إذا تصدق علی ابنہ وہو لا یشعر، ۱/۴۸۰، حدیث:۱۴۲۲)
Hadrat Sayyiduna Abu Yazeed Ma’ni bin Yazeed bin Akhnas Radi Allahu ‘Anhu, who was not only blessed by being one of the companions, but his father and grandfather were also among the blessed companions! He narrates: “My father went out one day to give some Dinaars as Sadqah and he returned after having left this with a person in the Masjid. When I went there (to the Masjid), I took away the Dinaars and returned to my father. He replied, ‘By Allah! I did not have the intention of giving it to you.’ We then appeared in front of the Holy Prophet Sallal Laahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam with this matter. He declared, ‘O Yazid! You will receive the reward for your intention and O Ma’no! Whatever you have taken, it belongs to you.’” (Bukhari Shareef)
Allama Haafiz ibn Hajr Asqalani Radi Allahu ‘Anhu explains that the words “for you is what you intended” as being, “Because Yazeed bin Akhnas intended to give charity and because his son was also someone who was needy, hence he took away this money. Therefore, the money of Yazeed was actually received by someone who was needy even though he did not realize at that time that his son was someone who was needy. Therefore, Yazeed would receive the reward for his intention to give charity.” (Fathul Baari)
A gift given to your children cannot be taking back!
From this Hadith Shareef, a general rule is proven which is that Hadrat Sayyiduna Yazeed bin Akhnas Radi Allahu ‘Anhu had given someone in the Masjid the power of attorney in respect of his charity. In other words, the person who he gave the money too had the power to then hand over the money to whoever he considered suitable. Hence, the power of attorney of the Wakeel had been fulfilled, even though this money ended up in the hands of his son. The general law of giving a gift to one’s son is also proven from this. This is the rule upheld by Imam A’zam Radi Allahu ‘Anhu. Another rule that should be borne in mind is that this charity is only for Nafil charity and not Waajib charity. (Umdatul Qaari)
How to increase your sustenance and save yourself from future calamity
Hadrat Sayyiduna Jaabir bin Abdullah Radi Allahu ‘Anhu narrates that once Sayyiduna Rasoolullah Sallal Laahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam, while delivering a Khutbah (sermon), explained that, “O People! Before death, seek repentance in the Divine Court of Allah azza wajal and before you become extremely occupied (or busy) make haste in doing good. Increase the Dhikr of Allah azza wajal and become connected to Allah azza wajal by increasing in giving charity either in secret or openly. Because of this, you would be given sustenance (with ease), you would be Divinely helped and your condition would improve”. (Ibn Maja)
He heard voices in the clouds!
Hadrat Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah Radi Allahu ‘Anhu narrates that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah Sallal Laahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam explained that, “Once a person was passing by a desolate area when he heard a voice coming from a cloud which said, ‘Water a certain orchard.’ Thereafter, it began to rain on a stony field. The rain then collected in one spot and began to flow in one direction. This person also began to follow the flowing water. He then saw that the water entered a certain orchard; (and began to nourish this same orchard).
“When he asked the farmer of this orchard his name, he realized that this was the same name he had heard from the clouds above him a few moments ago. The farmer then asked him why he had inquired about his name. He replied, ‘The rain which came from this cloud, I heard a voice saying that the orchard of certain person be watered. Therefore, what (special action) do you do in this orchard (because of which the cloud was instructed to nourish your field).’ The farmer replied, ‘Because you have specifically asked this question, listen carefully. I give away one portion of this crop as charity. I keep one portion for myself, one portion for my family and friends and one portion I plow back into this field.’” (Muslim Shareef)
Charity eliminates the fire in the grave
Hadrat Sayyiduna Uqbah Radi Allahu ‘Anhu narrates that the Holy Prophet Sallal Laahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam has declared that, “Without doubt! The charity of a person distances the fire from one’s grave and on the Day of Judgement the believer would be under the shadow of his charity.” (Mo’jim Kabeer)
There are four types of people in the world!
The Holy Prophet Sallal Laahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam said, “Shall I not tell you something which you should remember? There are four types of people in the world.
- One is that person to whom Allah azza wajal has given wealth and knowledge. In this, he fears his Creator. He is good to his relatives and accepts the Divine Right of Allah azza wajal on his wealth. (In other words, he knows how to rightfully spend this wealth). This person is on the highest position.
- The second person is that person to whom Allah azza wajal has given knowledge but not wealth. However, his intention is pure and he says that if Allah azza wajal had given me wealth, then I would behave like a certain person. Therefore, he is rewarded according to his intention. The reward of both of them is equal.
- The third type (is that person) to whom Allah azza wajal has given wealth but not knowledge. He spends his wealth without knowledge and does not fear Allah azza wajal in this regard. He is not good to his family or friends and does not accept the Divine Rights of Allah azza wajal on his wealth. He is in the most despicable of rank.
- The fourth person is that person whom Allah azza wajal has not given wealth neither knowledge. He also admits that if he was given wealth, he would also behave like a certain person (in other words, like the third person). The sin of both of them is equal.” (Tirmidhi Shareef)
The reward for a single piece of bread!
Hadrat Sayyiduna ibn Mas’ud Radi Allahu ‘Anhu reports that, “There was once a priest who had spent sixty years in worship. He then became misled by a female and spent six days in her company. He then realized his mistake and hurried towards a Masjid. In the Masjid, he found three people who were hungry and gave them a piece of bread as charity. When he died, his deeds were weighed. On one side of the scale, his sixty years of worship were placed and on the other side of the scale, his six days of sin were placed. His sins were heavier than his worship. However, when the charity of his bread was placed on the scale, it was heavier than his sins.” (Shuhubul Imaan)
The charity of a true believer would be his shadow on the Day of Judgement!
Hadrat Sayyiduna Yazeed bin Abi Habeeb Radi Allahu ‘Anhu reports: “Hadrat Sayyiduna Marsad bin Abdullah Muzani Radi Allahu ‘Anhu was among the first people to walk towards the Masjid. I have never seen him enter the Masjid without giving some charity. Hidden in his sleeves, he either had some coins, some bread or some grain. One day, I saw that he had an onion hidden in his sleeves and I asked him, ‘O Abul Khair! Your clothes would become smelly through this.’ He replied, ‘I could not find anything in my house to give as charity; therefore, I could only bring this (onion). The words of Sayyiduna Rasoolullah Sallal Laahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam has reached me that the charity of a believer would be his shadow on the Day of Judgement.’” (Sahih ibn Khuzaimah)
Interesting points we have learnt are…
- A son who is in dire need can accept the Nafil Sadqah or charity of his father.
- A father who gives his son this Sadqah cannot take it back.
- When it comes to charity, it also very important to look at one’s closest relatives first as one cannot know in what condition they are in; since this is not something that they openly advertise.