فَلَاۤ اُقْسِمُ بِالْخُنَّسِ ﴿ۙ۱۵﴾

  Then I swear by those that recede;

 الْجَوَارِ الْکُنَّسِ ۙ﴿۱۶﴾

  Walk straight and then stop.


 وَ الَّیۡلِ اِذَا عَسْعَسَ ﴿ۙ۱۷﴾

  And by the night when it departs.


وَ الصُّبْحِ اِذَا تَنَفَّسَ ﴿ۙ۱۸﴾

  And by the morning when it breathes.


 اِنَّہٗ لَقَوْلُ رَسُوۡلٍ کَرِیۡمٍ ﴿ۙ۱۹﴾

  Undoubtedly, this is the recitation of a noble Messenger.


 ذِیۡ قُوَّۃٍ عِنۡدَ ذِی الْعَرْشِ مَکِیۡنٍ ﴿ۙ۲۰﴾

  Who is powerful, dignified in the presence of the Lord of the Throne.


مُّطَاعٍ ثَمَّ اَمِیۡنٍ ﴿ؕ۲۱﴾

  There He is obeyed, He is trustworthy.


 وَ مَا صَاحِبُکُمۡ بِمَجْنُوۡنٍ ﴿ۚ۲۲﴾

  And your companion is not mad.


وَ لَقَدْ رَاٰہُ بِالْاُفُقِ الْمُبِیۡنِ ﴿ۚ۲۳﴾

  And undoubtedly, he saw him on the bright horizon.

وَ مَا ہُوَ عَلَی الْغَیۡبِ بِضَنِیۡنٍ ﴿ۚ۲۴﴾

  And he is not niggardly as to the disclosing of unseen.

Tafsir al-Qurtubi                                                                                                                                                                                      تفسیر القرطبی                                                    

(فَلا أُقْسِمُ بِالْخُنَّسِ الْجَوارِ الْكُنَّسِ) هِيَ الْكَوَاكِبُ الْخَمْسَةُ الدَّرَارِيُّ:

 زُحَلُ

وَالْمُشْتَرِي

وَعُطَارِدُ

وَالْمِرِّيخُ

 وَالزُّهَرَةُ

 فِيمَا ذَكَرَ أَهْلُ التَّفْسِيرِ.

وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ.

 وَهُوَ مَرْوِيٌّ عَنْ عَلِيٍّ كَرَّمَ اللَّهُ وَجْهَهُ.

 وَفِي تَخْصِيصِهَا بِالذِّكْرِ مِنْ بَيْنِ سَائِرِ النُّجُومِ وَجْهَانِ:

 أَحَدُهُمَا: لِأَنَّهَا تَسْتَقْبِلُ الشَّمْسَ، قَالَهُ بَكْرُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الْمُزَنِيُّ.

الثَّانِي: لِأَنَّهَا تَقْطَعُ الْمَجَرَّةَ، قَالَهُ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ.

عَلِيٌّ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ، قَالَ: هِيَ النُّجُومُ تَخْنِسُ بِالنَّهَارِ، وَتَظْهَرُ بِاللَّيْلِ

i.e. they are the five major planets:

1. Saturn

2. Jupiter

3. Mercury

4. Mars

5. Venus

As the Exegetists have pointed out.

Allah knows best.

It has been reported from Sayyiduna ‘Ali – may Allah be pleased with him.

These stars have been given preference over the other stars as they are mentioned, could have been due to two reasons:

  1. They are stationed against the sun.  Sayyiduna Bakr ibn Abdullah al-Muzani has mentioned it.
  2. They float in the milky way.  Sayyiduna Ibn ‘Abbas – may Allah be pleased with them – has mentioned it.

Sayyiduna ‘Ali – may Allah be pleased with him – said:  These are the planets that hide during the day and appear at night.

(إِنَّهُ لَقَوْلُ رَسُولٍ كَرِيمٍ) وَالرَّسُولُ الْكَرِيمُ جِبْرِيلُ، قَالَهُ الْحَسَنُ وَقَتَادَةُ وَالضَّحَّاكُ.

i.e. Sayyiduna Jibreel – peace be upon him – is the noble Messenger.  This is the view expressed by Sayyiduna Hasan, Qatadah and Dhahhak – may Allah be pleased with them.

(ذِي قُوَّةٍ) رَوَى الضَّحَّاكُ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: مِنْ قُوَّتِهِ قَلْعُهُ مَدَائِنَ قَوْمِ لُوطٍ بِقَوَادِمِ جَنَاحِهِ.

Sayyiduna Dhahhak reported form Sayyiduna Ibn ‘Abbas – may Allah be pleased with them:  One of the examples of his strength is his uprooting of the residential area of the nation of Sayyiduna Loot – peace be upon him – with his wings.

(مُطاعٍ ثَمَّ): أي في السموات

 قَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ: مِنْ طَاعَةِ الْمَلَائِكَةِ جِبْرِيلَ، أَنَّهُ لَمَّا أُسْرِيَ بِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ جِبْرِيلُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ لِرِضْوَانٍ خَازِنِ الْجِنَانِ: افْتَحْ لَهُ، فَفَتَحَ، فَدَخَلَ وَرَأَى مَا فِيهَا، وَقَالَ لِمَالِكٍ خَازِنِ النَّارِ: افْتَحْ لَهُ جَهَنَّمَ حَتَّى يَنْظُرَ إِلَيْهَا، فَأَطَاعَهُ وَفَتَحَ لَهُ.

(أَمِينٍ) أَيْ مُؤْتَمَنٍ عَلَى الْوَحْيِ الَّذِي يجئ بِهِ.

He is obeyed i.e. in the heavens.

Sayyiduna Ibn ‘Abbas – may Allah be pleased with them – said:  The angels are obedient to Sayyiduna Jibreel – peace be upon him.  When he had ascended with the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him, he said to the authority of the Paradise to open it for him, and he opened then he entered and saw what was inside it.  He said to the authority of hell to open it for him to see inside and he opened it for him.

He is trustworthy i.e. he is trusted with the revelation he brings down.

(وَما صاحِبُكُمْ بِمَجْنُونٍ) يَعْنِي مُحَمَّدًا صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ليس بِمَجْنُونٍ حَتَّى يُتَّهَمَ فِي قَوْلِهِ.

وَقِيلَ: أَرَادَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنْ يَرَى جِبْرِيلَ فِي الصُّورَةِ الَّتِي يَكُونُ بِهَا عِنْدَ رَبِّهِ جَلَّ وَعَزَّ فَقَالَ: مَا ذَاكَ إِلَيَّ، فَأَذِنَ لَهُ الرَّبُّ جَلَّ ثَنَاؤُهُ، فَأَتَاهُ وَقَدْ سَدَّ الْأُفُقَ، فَلَمَّا نَظَرَ إِلَيْهِ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ خَرَّ مَغْشِيًّا عَلَيْهِ، فَقَالَ الْمُشْرِكُونَ: إِنَّهُ مَجْنُونٌ، فَنَزَلَتْ: إِنَّهُ لَقَوْلُ رَسُولٍ كَرِيمٍ وَما صاحِبُكُمْ بِمَجْنُونٍ

i.e. Sayyiduna Muhammad – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – is not mad as it is wrongly alleged about him.

It is mentioned that the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – expressed his to see Sayyiduna Jibreel – peace be upon him – in his original form as he appears in the court of his Lord Almighty.  He said to him, “I am not authorized to do so.”  So Allah Almighty granted him the permission.  Sayyiduna Jibreel – peace be upon him – appeared before him while he was covering the entire horizon.  When the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – saw him, he fell unconscious.  The polytheists then spread the rumor that he is insane.  This verse (19-22) was then revealed to clear the misconception.

(وَلَقَدْ رَآهُ بِالْأُفُقِ الْمُبِينِ) أَيْ رَأَى جِبْرِيل فِي صُورَتِهِ، لَهُ سِتُّمِائَةِ جَنَاحٍ. بِالْأُفُقِ الْمُبِينِ أَيْ بِمَطْلِعِ الشَّمْسِ مِنْ قِبَلِ الْمَشْرِقِ

i.e. he saw Sayyiduna Jibreel – peace be upon him, he had 600 wings, i.e. at the point from where the sun rises in the east.

(وَما هُوَ عَلَى الْغَيْبِ بِضَنِينٍ):

وَالْغَيْبُ: الْقُرْآنُ وَخَبَرُ السَّمَاءِ. ثُمَّ هَذَا صِفَةُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ.

The unseen is the Holy Quran (the entire knowledge of it) and the news of the heavens.  This is the attribute of Sayyiduna Muhammad – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him.

Tafsir Qurtubi (Al-Jame’ Li Ahkaam al-Quran) Imam Shamsuddin Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Qurtubi t D. 671 A.H.

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