وَ السَّمَآءِ وَ الطَّارِقِ ۙ﴿۱﴾

By oath of the heaven, and by oath of the nightly arriver.
 وَ مَاۤ اَدْرٰىکَ مَا الطَّارِقُ ۙ﴿۲﴾

And have you understood what the nightly arriver is?
 النَّجْمُ الثَّاقِبُ ۙ﴿۳﴾

The very brightly shining star!
 اِنۡ کُلُّ نَفْسٍ لَّمَّا عَلَیۡہَا حَافِظٌ ؕ﴿۴﴾

There is not a soul that does not have a guardian over it.

Tafsir al-Tabari                                                         تفسیر الطبری                                

عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ:  {النَّجْمُ الثَّاقِبُ} [الطارق: 3] قَالَ: هِيَ الْكَوَاكِبُ الْمُضِيئَةُ

Sayyiduna Ibn ‘Abbas – may Allah be pleased with him – is reported to have said:  They are the luminescent stars.

عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَوْلُهُ: «إِنْ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ لَمَا عَلَيْهَا حَافِظٌ» قَالَ: كُلُّ نَفْسٍ عَلَيْهَا حَفَظَةٌ مِنَ الْمَلَائِكَةِ

Sayyiduna Ibn ‘Abbas – may Allah be pleased with him – is reported to have said:  There is a group of angels protecting over every soul.

عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، قَوْلُهُ: (إِنْ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ لَمَا عَلَيْهَا حَافِظٌ) : حَفَظَةٌ يَحْفَظُونَ عَمَلَكَ وَرِزْقَكَ وَأَجَلَكَ إِذَا تَوَفَّيْتَهُ يَا ابْنَ آدَمَ قُبِضْتَ إِلَى رَبِّكَ

Sayyiduna Qatadah – may Allah be pleased with him – is reported to have said:  They are the angels who record your deeds, provision and death, and O Adam’s child, when you die, your soul is captured and taken to your Lord.

Tafsir Al-Tabari (Tafsir Ibn Jareer / Jame’ al-Bayaan fi Taweel al-Quraan) of Imam Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Jareer al-Tabri t D. 310 A.H.

Tafsir al-Baghawi                                                     تفسیر البغوی                            

{وَالسَّمَاءِ وَالطَّارِقِ} قَالَ الْكَلْبِيُّ: نَزَلَتْ فِي أَبِي طَالِبٍ، وَذَلِكَ أَنَّهُ أَتَى النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَأَتْحَفَهُ بِخُبْزٍ وَلَبَنٍ، فَبَيْنَمَا هُوَ جالس يأكل إذا انْحَطَّ نَجْمٌ فَامْتَلَأَ مَاءً ثُمَّ نَارًا، فَفَزِعَ أَبُو طَالِبٍ وَقَالَ: أَيُّ شَيْءٍ هَذَا فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: هَذَا نَجْمٌ رُمِيَ بِهِ، وَهُوَ آيَةٌ مِنْ آيَاتِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَعَجِبَ أَبُو طَالِبٍ فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: وَالسَّمَاءِ وَالطَّارِقِ

Sayyiduna Kalbi – may Allah be pleased with him – said:  It was revealed about Abu Talib, that when he had visited the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him, he presented him bread and milk.  While he was sitting there and eating, a star fell resembling to be full of water and then it appeared as a fiery object.  Abu Talib got confused and said, “What is this thing?”  The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – replied, “It is a star used for beating.  It is a sign from Allah Almighty.”  Abu Talib was mesmerized and then Allah Almighty revealed the Surah.

Tafsir al-Baghawi (Ma’aalim al-Tanzeel) of Muhiyy al-Sunnah Imam Abu Muhammad Al-Husain ibn Mas’ood al-Baghwi al-Shafe’I t D. 510 A.H.

Tafsir al-Kabeer                                                                                                             التفسیر الکبیر                        

النَّجْمُ الثَّاقِبُ أَيْ هُوَ طَارِقٌ عَظِيمُ الشَّأْنِ، رَفِيعُ الْقَدْرِ وَهُوَ النَّجْمُ الَّذِي يُهْتَدَى بِهِ فِي ظُلُمَاتِ الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ وَيُوقَفُ بِهِ عَلَى أَوْقَاتِ الْأَمْطَارِ

i.e. it is a great shining star through which guidance is sought in the darkness on land and ocean and the times of rain are determined.

Tafsir al-Kabeer (Mafateeh al-Ghaib) of Imam Fakhruddin Muhammad ibn Umar al-Raazi al-Shafe’i t D. 606 A.H.

Tafsir al-Qurtubi                                                                                                                                                                                      تفسیر القرطبی                                                    

قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: وُكِّلَ بِالْمُؤْمِنِ مِائَةٌ وَسِتُّونَ مَلَكًا يَذُبُّونَ عَنْهُ مَا لَمْ يَقْدِرْ عَلَيْهِ. مِنْ ذَلِكَ الْبَصَرُ، سَبْعَةُ أَمْلَاكٍ يَذُبُّونَ عَنْهُ، كَمَا يُذَبُّ عَنْ قَصْعَةِ الْعَسَلِ الذُّبَابُ. وَلَوْ وُكِلَ الْعَبْدُ إِلَى نَفْسِهِ طَرْفَةَ عَيْنٍ لَاخْتَطَفَتْهُ الشَّيَاطِينُ

The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – is reported to have said:  One hundred and sixty angels are appointed upon a believer who protect him against every calamity that are not destined for one.  Amongst those protected objects are one’s eyes that are protected by 7 angels like how the flies are kept away from the bowl of honey.  If one was left unprotected even to the duration of the blink of an eye, the devil would trap him.

Tafsir Qurtubi (Al-Jame’ Li Ahkaam al-Quran) Imam Shamsuddin Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Qurtubi t D. 671 A.H.

Tafsir al-Jalalain                                                                                                                        تفسیر الجلالین                                                

وَالْحَافِظ مِنْ الْمَلَائِكَة يَحْفَظ عَمَلهَا مِنْ خَيْر وَشَرّ

The angels of protection record one’s good and evil deeds.

Tafsir al-Jalalain of Imam Jalaaluddin Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Mahalli al-Shafe’i t D. 864 A.H. and Imam Jalaaluddin Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr al-Suyooti al-Shafe’i t D. 911 A.H.

Tafsir Rooh al-Bayaan                                                                                              تفسیر روح البیان                                                

آورده اند كه در مكه زنى بود فاجره وكفت من طاوس يمانى را برگردانم از راه طاعت ودر معصيت كشم وطاوس مردى نيكو روى بود وخوش خلق وخوش طبع ان زن بر طاوس آمد وبا وى سخن در كرفت بر سبيل مزاح طاوس بدانست كه مقصودوى چيست كفت آرى صبر كن تا بفلان چايكاه آييم چون بدان جايكاه رسيدند طاوس كفت اگر ترا مقصودى است اينجا تواند بود آن زن كفت سبحان الله اين چهـ جاى آن كارست انجمنگاه خلق ومجمع نظار كيان طاوس كفت أليس الله يرانا فى كل مكان اى زن از ديدار مردم شرم دارى واز ديدار الله كه بما مى نكرد خود شرم ندارى يستخفون من الناس ولا يستخفون من الله اين سخن در زن كرفت وتوبه كرد واز جمله أوليا كشت

It is narrated that there was a prostitute in Makkah Mukarramah.  She claimed that she would turn Hazrat Taoos al-Yamaani – may Allah be pleased with him – away from the obedience of Allah and would drag him into the acts of disobedience.  Hazrat Taoos al-Yamaani was a very pious, decent and a man of good nature.  This woman would come to him and speak about things and would hint at her objective in a sly way.  He was aware of her intentions.  He brushed it off by telling her that she should be patient for today but she may come tomorrow to a certain place.  They reached their agreed meeting spot the next day but there was a large crowd of people.  He told her that she could fulfil her objective right there.  The woman hesitated by saying that there are a lot of people and they would watch their deeds.  Hazrat Taoos told her, “O Allah’s slave, you are ashamed of a bunch of people confronting you but you do not fear the One who watches over everyone everywhere?  Are you one of those who only fear people but not Allah?”  This admonition of Hazrat Taoos had immense effect on her heart and she sincerely repented and entered the ranks of Awliya.

(وحكى) ان ابن عمر رضى الله عنهما مر بغلام يرعى غنما فقال له يعنى شاة فقال انها ليست لى فقال له ابن عمر قل أكلها الذئب فقال الغلام فأين الله فاشتراه ابن عمر واشترى الغنم واعتقه ووهب له الغنم وبقي ابن عمر مدة طويلة يقول قال ذلك العبد فأين الله

It is narrated that Sayyiduna Ibn ‘Umar – may Allah be pleased with him – once passed by a slave shepherd who took the sheep for grazing.  He said to him that he wanted a sheep, would you sell it to me?  He replied that it did not belong to him.  Sayyiduna Ibn ‘Umar – may Allah be pleased with him – then said to him, “Tell your master that the wolf ate it.”  The slave replied, “What would I say to Allah?”  He bought the slave and also bought the sheep and freed him and gave him the sheep.  Sayyiduna Ibn ‘Umar lived for a long period of time after this incident and would always recall what the slave had said to him, “What would I say to Allah?”

فصاحب المراقبة يدع من المعاصي حياء ومنه تعالى وهيبة له اكثر مما يدعه من يترك المعاصي بخوف عقوبته

The people who are closer to the Divine Court of Allah abandon disobedience due to shame and fear of Allah but most people abandon the sins only due to the fear of punishment.

در خبرست كه رسول الله عليه السلام فرمود تعرض على أعمالكم فما كان من حسنة حمدت الله عليه وما كان من سيئة استغفرت الله لكم

It is mentioned in the Hadeeth that the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – has stated:  Your deeds are presented before me, when I see good deeds I praise Allah over it and when I see evil deeds I seek forgiveness for you.

Tafsir Rooh al-Bayaan of Imam Isma’eel Haqqi ibn Mustafa al-Istanbuli Hanafi t D. 1127 A.H.

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