قَدْ اَفْلَحَ مَنۡ تَزَکّٰی ﴿ۙ۱۴﴾

Indeed successful is the one who became pure.

Tafsir al-Qurtubi                                                                                                                                                                                      تفسیر القرطبی                                                    

قَدْ أَفْلَحَ أَيْ قَدْ صَادَفَ الْبَقَاءَ فِي الْجَنَّةِ، أَيْ مَنْ تَطَهَّرَ مِنَ الشِّرْكِ بِإِيمَانٍ، قَالَهُ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ وَعَطَاءٌ وَعِكْرِمَةُ.

Indeed successful is i.e. he has achieved the eternal life in Paradise, is he who purified himself with faith from polytheism.  This is the statement of Sayyiduna Ibn ‘Abbas, ‘Ata and ‘Ikramah – may Allah be pleased with them.

وَرَوَى كَثِيرُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ جَدِّهِ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِي قَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى: قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَنْ تَزَكَّى قَالَ: أَخْرَجَ زَكَاةَ الْفِطْرِ ، وَذَكَرَ اسْمَ رَبِّهِ فَصَلَّى قَالَ: صَلَاةُ الْعِيدِ

Sayyiduna Katheer ibn ‘Abdullah narrated from his father, who reported that the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – stated in his Hadeeth: (Indeed successful is the one who became pure) “Who took out the Zakah of Fitr [Sadaqah of Eid al-Fitr].” (And who mentioned the name of his Lord, then offered prayer) “Eid Salah”.

وَرَوَى جَابِرُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ قَالَ: قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَنْ تَزَكَّى أَيْ مَنْ شَهِدَ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ، وَخَلَعَ الْأَنْدَادَ، وَشَهِدَ أَنِّي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ .

Sayyiduna Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah – may Allah be pleased with him – reported that the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – stated: “Indeed successful is the one who became pure i.e. Who bore testimony that there is none worthy of worship besides Allah, got rid of idols and bore testimony that indeed I am the Messenger of Allah.”

وَرَوَى عَنْهُ عَطَاءٌ قَالَ: نَزَلَتْ فِي عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عَفَّانَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ.

قَالَ: كَانَ بِالْمَدِينَةِ مُنَافِقٌ كَانَتْ لَهُ نَخْلَةٌ بِالْمَدِينَةِ، مَائِلَةٌ فِي دَارِ رَجُلٍ مِنْ الْأَنْصَارِ، إِذَا هَبَّتِ الرِّيَاحُ أَسْقَطَتِ الْبُسْرَ وَالرُّطَبَ إِلَى دَارِ الْأَنْصَارِيِّ، فَيَأْكُلُ هُوَ وَعِيَالُهُ، فَخَاصَمَهُ الْمُنَافِقُ، فَشَكَا ذَلِكَ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، فَأَرْسَلَ إِلَى الْمُنَافِقِ وَهُوَ لَا يَعْلَمُ نِفَاقَهُ، فَقَالَ: إِنَّ أَخَاكَ الْأَنْصَارِيَّ ذَكَرَ أَنَّ بُسْرَكَ وَرُطَبَكَ يَقَعُ إِلَى مَنْزِلِهِ، فَيَأْكُلُ هُوَ وَعِيَالُهُ، فَهَلْ لَكَ أَنْ أُعْطِيَكَ نَخْلَةً فِي الْجَنَّةِ بَدَلَهَا فَقَالَ: أَبِيعُ عَاجِلًا بِآجِلٍ! لَا أَفْعَلُ.

فَذَكَرُوا أَنَّ عُثْمَانَ بْنَ عَفَّانَ أَعْطَاهُ حَائِطًا مِنْ نَخْلٍ بَدَلَ نَخْلَتِهِ، فَفِيهِ نَزَلَتْ قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَنْ تَزَكَّى. وَنَزَلَتْ في المنافق- يَتَجَنَّبُهَا الْأَشْقَى

Sayyiduna ‘Ata – may Allah be pleased with him – reported from him (Sayyiduna Ibn ‘Abbas – may Allah be pleased with him) that he said:  It was revealed about Sayyiduna ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan – may Allah be pleased with him.

He narrated:  There was a hypocrite in Madinah Munawwarah who had a date tree which was hanging in an Ansari’s house, so he and his family used to eat from it.  The hypocrite fought with them over it, so he complained about it by Allah’s Messenger – may Allah be pleased with him.  He summoned that hypocrite while nobody knew about his hypocrisy.  He said to him, “Your Ansari brother mentioned that your dates fell in his house, so he and his family ate them.  How about I grant you a date tree in Paradise in lieu of it?”  “Are you asking me to sell my present property in exchange for the one that will come later?!  I will not do it” replied the hypocrite.

They mentioned that Sayyiduna ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan – may Allah be pleased with him – gave him the entire orchard of dates in exchange for his date tree then this verse was revealed and the following verse was revealed about that hypocrite:

وَ یَتَجَنَّبُہَا الْاَشْقَی ﴿ۙ۱۱﴾

And the most wicked will stay away from it.

(Al-A’la 87, Verse 11)

Tafsir Qurtubi (Al-Jame’ Li Ahkaam al-Quran) Imam Shamsuddin Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Qurtubi t D. 671 A.H.

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