لَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الْاِنۡسٰنَ فِیْ کَبَدٍ ؕ﴿۴﴾

We have indeed created man surrounded by hardships.

Tafsir al-Kabeer                                                                                                             التفسیر الکبیر                        

أَيْ خَلَقْنَاهُ أَطْوَارًا كُلُّهَا شِدَّةٌ وَمَشَقَّةٌ، تَارَةً فِي بَطْنِ الْأُمِّ، ثُمَّ زَمَانَ الْإِرْضَاعِ، ثُمَّ إِذَا بَلَغَ فَفِي الْكَدِّ فِي تَحْصِيلِ الْمَعَاشِ، ثُمَّ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ الْمَوْتُ.

i.e. We created the mankind surrounded by all sorts of hardships; in the belly of the mother, then the nursing period then in his hard efforts to earn the livelihood and then to go through the agony of death.

Tafsir al-Kabeer (Mafateeh al-Ghaib) of Imam Fakhruddin Muhammad ibn Umar al-Raazi al-Shafe’i t D. 606 A.H.

Tafsir al-Qurtubi                                                                                                                                                                                      تفسیر القرطبی                                                    

وَعَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ أَيْضًا: فِي شِدَّةٍ مِنْ حَمْلِهُ وَوِلَادَتِهِ وَرَضَاعِهِ وَنَبْتِ أَسْنَانِهِ، وَغَيْرِ ذَلِكَ مِنْ أَحْوَالِهِ.

Sayyiduna Ibn ‘Abbas – may Allah be pleased with them – said:  Hardship of carrying (the fetus), the birth, breastfeeding, teething etc. different stages of life.

Tafsir Qurtubi (Al-Jame’ Li Ahkaam al-Quran) Imam Shamsuddin Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Qurtubi t D. 671 A.H.

Tafsir al-Jalalain                                                                                                                        تفسیر الجلالین                                                

{لَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الْإِنْسَان} أَيْ الْجِنْس {فِي كَبَد} نَصَب وَشِدَّة يُكَابِد مَصَائِب الدُّنْيَا وَشَدَائِد الْآخِرَة

We certainly created man (mankind) in hardship, in [a state of] toil and hardship, struggling with the tribulations of this world and the calamities of the Hereafter.

Tafsir al-Jalalain of Imam Jalaaluddin Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Mahalli al-Shafe’i t D. 864 A.H. and Imam Jalaaluddin Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr al-Suyooti al-Shafe’i t D. 911 A.H.

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