وَ وَالِدٍ وَّ مَا وَلَدَ ۙ﴿۳﴾

And by (oath of) your father Ibrahim, and his children (which you are).

Tafsir al-Kabeer                                                                                                             التفسیر الکبیر                        

أَنَّ الْوَلَدَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ وَإِسْمَاعِيلُ وَمَا وَلَدَ مُحَمَّدٌ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَذَلِكَ لِأَنَّهُ أَقْسَمَ بِمَكَّةَ وَإِبْرَاهِيمَ بَانِيهَا وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَمُحَمَّدٍ عَلَيْهِمَا السَّلَامُ سُكَّانِهَا

“The father” refers to Sayyiduna Ibrahim – peace be upon him – and Sayyiduna Ismail – peace be upon him – and the term “his son” refers to Sayyiduna Muhammad – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him.  It is due to the fact that that the Almighty swore by Makkah, and Sayyiduna Ibrahim and Sayyiduna Ismail – peace be upon them – are its founder and the Holy Prophet Muhammad – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – is its resident.

Tafsir al-Kabeer (Mafateeh al-Ghaib) of Imam Fakhruddin Muhammad ibn Umar al-Raazi al-Shafe’i t D. 606 A.H.

Tafsir al-Qurtubi                                                                                                                                                                                      تفسیر القرطبی                                                    

وَيَحْتَمِلُ أَنَّ الْوَالِدَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، لِتَقَدُّمِ ذِكْرِهِ، وَمَا وَلَدَ أُمَّتُهُ: لِقَوْلِهِ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ: [إِنَّمَا أَنَا لَكُمْ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْوَالِدِ أُعَلِّمُكُمْ]. فَأَقْسَمَ بِهِ وَبِأُمَّتِهِ بَعْدَ أَنْ أَقْسَمَ بِبَلَدِهِ، مُبَالَغَةً فِي تَشْرِيفِهِ عليه السلام.

There is also the possibility that the father here is the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him, due to his earlier mention and “his children” refers to his Ummah, for the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – has stated:

إِنَّمَا أَنَا لَكُمْ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْوَالِدِ أُعَلِّمُكُمْ

I am a father figure for you, I educate you.

So Allah Almighty took his oath and the oath of his Ummah after swearing by his city, to signify the honour of the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him.

Tafsir Qurtubi (Al-Jame’ Li Ahkaam al-Quran) Imam Shamsuddin Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Qurtubi t D. 671 A.H.

Tafsir al-Jalalain                                                                                                                        تفسیر الجلالین                                                

{وَوَالِد} أَيْ آدَم {وَمَا وَلَدَ} أَيْ ذُرِّيَّته

And by the father, i.e. Adam, and his children, i.e. his descendants.

Tafsir al-Jalalain of Imam Jalaaluddin Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Mahalli al-Shafe’i t D. 864 A.H. and Imam Jalaaluddin Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr al-Suyooti al-Shafe’i t D. 911 A.H.

Tafsir Rooh al-Bayaan                                                                                              تفسیر روح البیان                                                

قيل الوالد هو النبي عليه السلام وما ولد أمته المرحومة :

It is also said that the father (in this verse) is the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – and his blessed Ummah are his children.

لقوله عليه السلام انما انا لكم مثل الوالد أعلمكم امر دينكم

For he – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – has stated:  I am a father figure for you, I educate you on your religious matters.

ولقوله عليه السلام لعلى رضى الله عنه أنا وأنت أبوا هذه الامة

Hadeeth:  The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – said to Sayyiduna ‘Ali – may Allah be pleased with him:  You and I are the fathers of this Ummah.

والى هذا أشار بقوله عليه السلام كل سبب ونسب ينقطع يوم القيامة الا سببى ونسبى

The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – indicated towards this:  Every medium and lineage will be discontinued on the Day of Judgment except my medium and my lineage.

وقد سمى الله النبي عليه السلام أبا للمؤمنين حيث قال

النبي اولى بالمؤمنين من أنفسهم وأزواجه أمهاتهم

وفى بعض القراآت:

وهو أب لهم

Allah Almighty has declared the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – to be the father of believers, and hence stated:

النبي اولى بالمؤمنين من أنفسهم وأزواجه أمهاتهم

This prophet is the owner of the Muslims even more than their own-selves and his wives are their mothers.

(Al-Ahzab 33, Verse 6)

And in some Qira’ats, the additional wording is as follows:

وهو أب لهم

And he is their father.

فان امومية الأزواج المطهرة تقتضى أبوته عليه السلام إذ كل من كان سببا لايجاد شىء وإصلاحه او ظهوره يسمى أبا

 وقد قال عليه السلام انا من الله والمؤمنون من فيض نورى

The motherhood of the pure wives requires him to be the father figure.  If someone happens to be the reason of something’s existence and its reformation, he is generally regarded as a father (in that faculty).

The beloved Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – has stated:  I am from Allah and all the believers are through the grace of my light.

Tafsir Rooh al-Bayaan of Imam Isma’eel Haqqi ibn Mustafa al-Istanbuli Hanafi t D. 1127 A.H.

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