وَ فِرْعَوْنَ ذِی الْاَوْتَادِ ﴿۱۰﴾۪ۙ

And with Firaun, who used to crucify.

Tafsir al-Baghawi                                                     تفسیر البغوی                            

عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ: أَنَّ فِرْعَوْنَ إِنَّمَا سُمِّيَ ذِي الْأَوْتَادِ لِأَنَّهُ كَانَتِ امْرَأَةٌ، وَهِيَ امْرَأَةُ خَازِنِ فِرْعَوْنَ حِزْبِيلَ، وَكَانَ مُؤْمِنًا كَتَمَ إِيمَانَهُ مِائَةَ سَنَةٍ، وَكَانَتِ امْرَأَتُهُ مَاشِطَةُ بِنْتِ فِرْعَوْنَ

Sayyiduna Ibn ‘Abbas – may Allah be pleased with them – commented:  The reason as to why Pharaoh is regarded as the one who used to crucify is due to the fact that there was a woman who was the wife of Pharaoh’s treasurer by the name of Hizbeel.  He was a believer but he had hid his faith for a hundred years and his wife was the appointed beautician of Pharaoh’s daughter.

 فَبَيْنَمَا هِيَ ذَاتَ يَوْمٍ تُمَشِّطُ رَأْسَ بِنْتِ فِرْعَوْنَ إِذْ سَقَطَ الْمُشْطُ مِنْ يَدِهَا، فَقَالَتْ: تَعِسَ مَنْ كَفَرَ بِاللَّهِ، فَقَالَتْ بِنْتُ فِرْعَوْنَ: وَهَلْ لَكِ مِنْ إِلَهٍ غَيْرُ أَبِي فَقَالَتْ: إِلَهِي وَإِلَهُ أَبِيكِ وَإِلَهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاحِدٌ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ

Once while she was doing Pharaoh’s daughter’s hair the comb slipped from her hand and fell.  She said, “Woe to the one who is unfaithful to Allah”.  Pharaoh’s daughter said, “Do you believe in any other God besides my father?”  She said, “My God, the God of your father and the God of heavens and earth is One who has no associates.

 فَقَامَتْ فَدَخَلَتْ عَلَى أَبِيهَا وَهِيَ تَبْكِي، فَقَالَ: مَا يُبْكِيكِ قَالَتْ: الْمَاشِطَةُ امْرَأَةُ خَازِنِكَ تَزْعُمُ أَنَّ إِلَهَكَ وَإِلَهَهَا وَإِلَهَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاحِدٌ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ. فَأَرْسَلَ إِلَيْهَا فَسَأَلَهَا عَنْ ذَلِكَ، فَقَالَتْ: صَدَقَتْ، فَقَالَ لَهَا: وَيْحَكِ اكْفُرِي بِإِلَهِكِ وَأَقِرِّي بِأَنِّي إِلَهُكِ

She got up and went to her father crying.  When he asked her, “What has made you cry?”  She replied, “Your treasurer’s daughter, the beautician thinks that your God, her God and the God of heavens and earth is One who has no associates.”  So he enquired about it by her and she said, “She spoke the truth.”  He then told her, “Woe to you!  Deny your belief in your God and submit to me as your God.”

 قَالَتْ: لَا أَفْعَلُ فَمَدَّهَا بَيْنَ أَرْبَعَةِ أَوْتَادٍ، ثُمَّ أَرْسَلَ عَلَيْهَا الْحَيَّاتِ وَالْعَقَارِبَ، وَقَالَ لَهَا: اُكْفُرِي بِإِلَهِكِ وَإِلَّا عَذَّبْتُكِ بِهَذَا الْعَذَابِ شَهْرَيْنِ، فَقَالَتْ لَهُ: وَلَوْ عَذَّبَتْنِي سَبْعِينَ شَهْرًا مَا كَفَرْتُ بِاللَّهِ. وَكَانَ لَهَا ابْنَتَانِ فَجَاءَ بِابْنَتِهَا الْكُبْرَى فَذَبَحَهَا عَلَى قُرْبٍ مِنْهَا. وَقَالَ لَهَا: اُكْفُرِي بِاللَّهِ وَإِلَّا ذَبَحْتُ الصُّغْرَى عَلَى قَلْبِكِ، وَكَانَتْ رَضِيعًا، فَقَالَتْ: لَوْ ذَبَحْتَ مَنْ عَلَى وَجْهِ الْأَرْضِ عَلَى فِيِّ مَا كَفَرْتُ بِاللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ

She said, “I will not do that.”  He pinned her on the crucifixion board then left snakes and scorpions on her body and said to her, “Deny your belief in your God otherwise I will punish you like this for two months.”  She replied, “I will not deny my belief in Allah even if you punish me for seventy months.”

وَكَانَ لَهَا ابْنَتَانِ فَجَاءَ بِابْنَتِهَا الْكُبْرَى فَذَبَحَهَا عَلَى قُرْبٍ مِنْهَا. وَقَالَ لَهَا: اُكْفُرِي بِاللَّهِ وَإِلَّا ذَبَحْتُ الصُّغْرَى عَلَى قَلْبِكِ، وَكَانَتْ رَضِيعًا، فَقَالَتْ: لَوْ ذَبَحْتَ مَنْ عَلَى وَجْهِ الْأَرْضِ عَلَى فِيِّ مَا كَفَرْتُ بِاللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ

She had two daughters so he brought her elder daughter and slaughtered her by her and said to her, “Deny your belief in Allah otherwise I will slaughter your younger daughter on your chest.”  She was still an infant.  She said, “Even if you slaughter everyone on the face of the earth, I will still not turn on my faith in Allah Almighty.”

 فَأَتَى بِابْنَتِهَا الصُّغْرَى فَلَمَّا أُضْجِعَتْ عَلَى صَدْرِهَا وَأَرَادُوا ذَبْحَهَا جَزِعَتِ الْمَرْأَةُ، فَأَطْلَقَ اللَّهُ لِسَانَ ابْنَتِهَا فَتَكَلَّمَتْ، وَهِيَ مِنَ الْأَرْبَعَةِ الَّذِينَ تَكَلَّمُوا أَطْفَالًا وَقَالَتْ: يَا أُمَّاهُ لَا تَجْزَعِي فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ بَنَى لَكِ بَيْتًا فِي الْجَنَّةِ. اصْبِرِي فَإِنَّكِ تُفْضِينَ إِلَى رَحْمَةِ اللَّهِ وَكَرَامَتِهِ، فَذُبِحَتْ فَلَمْ تَلْبَثْ أَنْ مَاتَتْ فَأَسْكَنَهَا اللَّهُ الْجَنَّةَ

He brought her younger daughter.  When they laid her on her chest and were about to slaughter her, the woman became extremely anxious but Allah Almighty granted her daughter the ability to talk.  She was one of the four infants who were granted the ability to talk as infants.  She said, “O mummy, do not worry, for indeed Allah Almighty has built a house for you in Paradise.  Be patient, for you be welcomed by Allah’s Mercy and His honour.”  She was then slaughtered, and not a long time had elapsed, she passed away as well and Allah Almighty accommodated her in Paradise.

 قَالَ: وَبَعَثَ فِي طَلَبِ زَوْجِهَا حِزْبِيلَ فَلَمْ يَقْدِرُوا عَلَيْهِ، فَقِيلَ لِفِرْعَوْنَ: إِنَّهُ قَدْ رُئِيَ فِي مَوْضِعِ كَذَا وَكَذَا فِي جَبَلِ كَذَا، فَبَعَثَ رَجُلَيْنِ فِي طَلَبِهِ فَانْتَهَيَا إِلَيْهِ وَهُوَ يُصَلِّي وَيَلِيهِ صُفُوفٌ مِنَ الْوُحُوشِ خَلْفَهُ يُصَلُّونَ، فَلَمَّا رَأَيَا ذَلِكَ انْصَرَفَا، فَقَالَ حِزْبِيلُ: اللَّهُمَّ إِنَّكَ تَعْلَمُ أَنِّي كَتَمْتُ إِيمَانِي مِائَةَ سَنَةٍ، وَلَمْ يَظْهَرْ عَلَيَّ أحد، فأيما هذان الرَّجُلَيْنِ كَتَمَ عَلَيَّ فَاهْدِهِ إِلَى دِينِكَ وَأَعْطِهِ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا سُؤْلَهُ، وَأَيُّمَا هَذَيْنِ الرَّجُلَيْنِ أَظْهَرَ عَلَيَّ فَعَجِّلْ عُقُوبَتَهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَاجْعَلْ مَصِيرَهُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ إِلَى النَّارِ

(Sayyiduna Ibn ‘Abbas – may Allah be pleased with them) said:  Pharaoh appointed men in pursuit of her husband Hizbeel but they could not fulfil the task.  Pharaoh was then informed that he was last seen in a certain place at a certain mountain.  He appointed two men in his search which led them to him while he was praying Salah and behind him were the rows of wild beasts following him in Salah.  When they saw that, they returned.  Hizbeel said, “O Allah, You are all knowing that I had hid my faith for hundred years and did not reveal it to anyone.  Whichever one of these two men will guard my secret, guide him towards Your religion and grant them their worldly desires and whichever one of these two men will reveal my secret, make him meet his end in this world and make his abode in the hereafter in hell.

 فَانْصَرَفَ الرَّجُلَانِ إِلَى فِرْعَوْنَ فَأَمَّا أَحَدُهُمَا فَاعْتَبَرَ وَآمَنَ، وَأَمَّا الْآخَرَ فَأَخْبَرَ فِرْعَوْنَ بِالْقِصَّةِ عَلَى رُءُوسِ الْمَلَأِ فَقَالَ لَهُ فِرْعَوْنُ: وَهَلْ كَانَ مَعَكَ غَيْرُكَ قَالَ: نَعَمْ فُلَانٌ، فَدَعَا بِهِ فَقَالَ: أَحَقٌّ مَا يَقُولُ هَذَا قَالَ: لَا مَا رَأَيْتُ مِمَّا قَالَ شَيْئًا فَأَعْطَاهُ فِرْعَوْنُ وَأَجْزَلَ، وَأَمَّا الْآخَرُ فَقَتَلَهُ، ثُمَّ صَلَبَهُ.

Both the men returned to Pharaoh.  One of them had take heed and became a believer but the other informed Pharaoh about the incident in the middle of a congregation.  Pharaoh said to him, “Was there anyone with you?”  He replied, “Yes, that person.”  He then summoned him.  He enquired from him, “Is what this man saying true?”  He replied, “No, I never saw anything of the sort he narrated.”  Pharaoh showed appreciation towards him and gave him gifts and the other person (who revealed the secret), he executed and crucified him.

قَالَ: وَكَانَ فِرْعَوْنُ قَدْ تَزَوَّجَ امْرَأَةً مِنْ نِسَاءِ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ يُقَالُ لَهَا آسِيَةُ بِنْتُ مُزَاحِمٍ فَرَأَتْ مَا صَنَعَ فِرْعَوْنُ بِالْمَاشِطَةِ، فَقَالَتْ: وَكَيْفَ يَسَعُنِي أَنْ أَصْبِرَ عَلَى مَا يَأْتِي بِهِ فِرْعَوْنُ، وَأَنَا مُسْلِمَةٌ وَهُوَ كَافِرٌ فَبَيْنَمَا هِيَ كَذَلِكَ تُؤَامِرُ نَفْسَهَا

(Sayyiduna Ibn ‘Abbas – may Allah be pleased with them) said:  Pharaoh had married a woman from Bani Israel known as Aasiyah bint Muzahim.  She saw whatever Pharaoh had done to the beautician and said, “I am a believer and Pharaah is an infidel.  How can I bear whatever he has done.”  She was talking to herself in this manner.

 إِذْ دَخَلَ عَلَيْهَا فِرْعَوْنُ فَجَلَسَ قَرِيبًا مِنْهَا، فَقَالَتْ: يَا فِرْعَوْنُ أَنْتَ شَرُّ الْخَلْقِ وَأَخْبَثُهُمْ عَمَدْتَ إِلَى الْمَاشِطَةِ فَقَتَلْتَهَا، قَالَ: فَلَعَلَّ بِكِ الْجُنُونَ الَّذِي كَانَ بِهَا قَالَتْ: مَا بِي مِنْ جُنُونٍ، وَإِنَّ إِلَهِي وإلهها وإلهك أوَإِلَهَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاحِدٌ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ

At this instance, Pharaoh came to her and sat next to her.  She said, “O Pharaoh, you are the worst of create and the most evil of them.  You crucified and killed the beautician.”  He said, “Perhaps you are also carried away by the same madness as she was.”  She said, “I am not carried away by madness.  Indeed my God, her God and the God of heavens and earth is One God who has no associates.”

 فَمَزَّقَ عَلَيْهَا ثِيَابَهَا وَضَرَبَهَا وَأَرْسَلَ إِلَى أَبَوَيْهَا فَدَعَاهُمَا، فَقَالَ لَهُمَا: أَلَّا تَرَيَانِ أَنَّ الْجُنُونَ الَّذِي كَانَ بِالْمَاشِطَةِ أَصَابَهَا قَالَتْ: أَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ مِنْ ذَلِكَ، إِنِّي أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ رَبِّي وَرَبَّكَ وَرَبَّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاحِدٌ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ، فَقَالَ لَهَا أَبُوهَا: يَا آسِيَةُ أَلَسْتِ مِنْ خَيْرِ نِسَاءِ [الْعَمَالِيقِ] وَزَوْجُكِ إِلَهُ الْعَمَالِيقِ

He tore her clothes and beat her and summoned her parents.  He said to them, “Don’t you see the same madness that was in that beautician, has gotten into her?!”  She said, “I seek Allah’s from that.  I testify that indeed my Lord and the Lord of heavens and earth is One Lord who has no associates.”  Her father then said to her, “O Aasiyah, Are you not the best woman amongst the Amaliqah tribe and your husband is the God of Amaliqah?”

 قَالَتْ أَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ مِنْ ذَلِكَ، إِنْ كَانَ مَا يَقُولُ حَقًّا فَقُولَا لَهُ أَنْ يُتَوِّجَنِي تَاجًا تَكُونُ الشَّمْسُ أَمَامَهُ وَالْقَمَرُ خَلْفَهُ وَالْكَوَاكِبُ حَوْلَهُ، فَقَالَ لَهُمَا فِرْعَوْنُ: اخْرُجَا عَنِّي، فَمَدَّهَا بَيْنَ أَرْبَعَةِ أَوْتَادٍ يُعَذِّبُهَا، فَفَتَحَ اللَّهُ لَهَا بَابًا إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ لِيُهَوِّنَ عَلَيْهَا مَا يَصْنَعُ بِهَا فِرْعَوْنُ، فَعِنْدَ ذَلِكَ قَالَتْ: رَبِّ ابْنِ لِي عِنْدَكَ بَيْتًا فِي الْجَنَّةِ وَنَجِّنِي مِنْ فِرْعَوْنَ وَعَمَلِهِ وَنَجِّنِي مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ (التَّحْرِيمِ-11) فَقَبَضَ اللَّهُ رُوحَهَا وَأَسْكَنَهَا الْجَنَّةَ .

She said, “I seek Allah’s refuge from that.  If he is truthful in his claim then both of you should tell him to put such a crown on my head that the sun be in front of it and the moon behind it, and the stars revolving around it.”  Pharaoh said to her parents, “Get out of here.”  And crucified her.  Allah Almighty opened the door of Paradise upon her to make it easy for her against whatever whatever Pharaoh was doing to her.  She said the following at that moment:

رَبِّ ابْنِ لِیۡ عِنۡدَکَ بَیۡتًا فِی الْجَنَّۃِ وَ نَجِّنِیۡ مِنۡ فِرْعَوْنَ وَ عَمَلِہٖ وَ نَجِّنِیۡ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۱۱﴾

‘O my Lord! Build a house for me in the Paradise with You and deliver me from Firawn and his work and deliver me from the people unjust.

(Al-Tahreem 66, Verse 11)

Allah Almighty captured her soul and placed her in Paradise.

Tafsir al-Baghawi (Ma’aalim al-Tanzeel) of Muhiyy al-Sunnah Imam Abu Muhammad Al-Husain ibn Mas’ood al-Baghwi al-Shafe’I t D. 510 A.H.

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