وَ الْفَجْرِ ۙ﴿۱﴾

By (oath of) the dawn.

Tafsir al-Qurtubi                                                                                                                                                                                      تفسیر القرطبی                                                    

وَاخْتُلِفَ فِي الْفَجْرِ:

 فَقَالَ قَوْمٌ: الْفَجْرُ هُنَا: انْفِجَارُ الظُّلْمَةِ عَنِ النَّهَارِ مِنْ كُلِّ يَوْمٍ، قَالَهُ عَلِيٌّ وَابْنُ الزُّبَيْرِ وَابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ.

 وَعَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ أَيْضًا أَنَّهُ النَّهَارُ كُلُّهُ، وَعَبَّرَ عَنْهُ بِالْفَجْرِ لِأَنَّهُ أَوَّلُهُ.

وَقَالَ ابْنُ مُحَيْصِنٍ عَنْ عَطِيَّةَ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ: يَعْنِي الْفَجْرَ يَوْمَ الْمُحَرَّمِ.

وَمِثْلَهُ قَالَ قَتَادَةُ. قَالَ: هُوَ فَجْرُ أَوَّلِ يَوْمٍ مِنَ المحرم، منه تنفجر السنة.

وَعَنْهُ أَيْضًا: صَلَاةُ الصُّبْحِ.

وَرَوَى ابْنُ جُرَيْجٍ عَنْ عَطَاءٍ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ:

 وَالْفَجْرِ: يُرِيدُ صَبِيحَةَ يَوْمِ النَّحْرِ، لِأَنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى جَلَّ ثَنَاؤُهُ جَعَلَ لِكُلِّ يَوْمٍ لَيْلَةً قَبْلَهُ، إِلَّا يَوْمَ النَّحْرِ لَمْ يَجْعَلْ لَهُ لَيْلَةً قَبْلَهُ وَلَا لَيْلَةً بَعْدَهُ، لِأَنَّ يَوْمَ عَرَفَةَ لَهُ لَيْلَتَانِ: لَيْلَةٌ قَبْلَهُ وَلَيْلَةٌ بَعْدَهُ، فَمَنْ أَدْرَكَ الْمَوْقِفَ لَيْلَةً بَعْدَ عَرَفَةَ، فَقَدْ أَدْرَكَ الْحَجَّ إِلَى طُلُوعِ الْفَجْرِ، فَجْرِ يَوْمِ النَّحْرِ. وَهَذَا قَوْلُ مُجَاهِدٍ.

The exegetists differed with regards to the word “Al-Fajr” (in this verse):

A group (of scholars) said in this regard:  It denotes the process of the disappearance of darkness as the light pierces through to the day on a daily basis.  Sayyiduna ‘Ali, Ibn Zubair and Ibn ‘Abbas – may Allah be pleased with them – have made this statement.

Sayyiduna Ibn ‘Abbas – may Allah be pleased with them – is also reported to have said:  It means the entire day, and the Almighty called it “the dawn” because it marks the beginning of the day.

Sayyiduna Ibn Muhaisin – may Allah be pleased with him – reported from Sayyiduna Ibn ‘Abbas – may Allah be pleased with them – that it refers to the dawn of the day of the month of Muharram.

Similarly, Sayyiudna Qatadah – may Allah be pleased with him – said:  It is the dawn of the first day of Muharram, for it is the beginning for the year.

It is also reported from him:  It (Al-Fajr) refers to the Fajr Salah.

Sayyiduna Juraij reports from Sayyiduna Ibn ‘Abbas – may Allah be pleased with them – to have interpreted the verse as follows:

The Almighty denoted the day of sacrifice, for Allah Almighty created a night before every day except for the day of sacrifice.  He did not create a night before it nor a night after it, for the day of ‘Arafah is equivalent to two nights; a night before and another one after it.  Whoever partakes in the stay at the night of ‘Arafah will attain the Hajj till the break of dawn; the dawn of the day of sacrifice.  This is the statement of Sayyiduna Mujahid – may Allah be pleased with him.

Tafsir Qurtubi (Al-Jame’ Li Ahkaam al-Quran) Imam Shamsuddin Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Qurtubi t D. 671 A.H.

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