فَاَلْہَمَہَا فُجُوۡرَہَا وَ تَقْوٰىہَا ﴿۸﴾۪ۙ

And inspired in it the knowledge of its sins and its piety.

Tafsir al-Matureedi                                            تفسیر الماتریدی                                

أنه علمها فجورها وتقواها، وأنه وضع في نفسه ما يعرف به قبح كل قبيح، وحسن كل حسن.

The Almighty inspired the soul recognition of its sins and piety i.e. He granted the soul the ability to distinguish between the bad in every evil and good in every virtue.

Tafsir al-Matureedi (Taweel Ahl al-Sunnah) of Imam Abu Mansoor Muhammad Ibn Muhammad al-Matureedi t D. 333 A.H.

Tafsir al-Qurtubi                                                                                                                         تفسیر القرطبی                                                    

وَعَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ كَعْبٍ قَالَ: إِذَا أَرَادَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بِعَبْدِهِ خَيْرًا، أَلْهَمَهُ الْخَيْرَ فَعَمِلَ بِهِ، وَإِذَا أَرَادَ بِهِ السُّوءَ، أَلْهَمَهُ الشَّرَّ فَعَمِلَ بِهِ.

Sayyiduna Muhammad ibn Ka’b – may Allah be pleased with him – is reported to have said:  When Allah Almighty ordains some good to His servant He inspires him to do good and he earns it, and when He ordains bad for him then He inspires him to do bad then he commits it.

عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: أَلْهَمَ الْمُؤْمِنَ الْمُتَّقِيَ تَقْوَاهُ، وَأَلْهَمَ الْفَاجِرَ فُجُورَهُ.

Sayyiduna Ibn ‘Abbas – may Allah be pleased with him – is reported to have said:  Allah Almighty inspires a pious believer to attain piety and inspires a sinner to commit vices.

وَرُوِيَ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ: قَرَأَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَأَلْهَمَها فُجُورَها وَتَقْواها قَالَ: [اللَّهُمَّ آتِ نَفْسِي تَقْوَاهَا، وَزَكِّهَا أَنْتَ خَيْرُ مَنْ زَكَّاهَا، أَنْتَ وَلِيُّهَا وَمَوْلَاهَا].

Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah – may Allah be pleased with him – reported:  The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – recited:

فَاَلْہَمَہَا فُجُوۡرَہَا وَ تَقْوٰىہَا ﴿۸﴾۪ۙ

And inspired in it the knowledge of its sins and its piety.

(Al-Shams 91, Verse 8)

He said:  O Allah, grant my soul piety and cleanse it, for You are the best who can purify it.  You are its Owner and Master.

وَفِي صَحِيحِ مُسْلِمٍ، عَنْ أَبِي الأسود الدؤلي قال: قال لي عمران ابن حُصَيْنٍ: أَرَأَيْتَ مَا يَعْمَلُ النَّاسُ الْيَوْمَ، وَيَكْدَحُونَ فِيهِ، أَشَيْءٌ قُضِيَ وَمَضَى عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْ قَدَرٍ سَبَقَ، أَوْ فِيمَا يَسْتَقْبِلُونَ «1» مِمَّا أَتَاهُمْ بِهِ نبيهم، وثبتت الحجة عليهم؟ فقلت: بل شي قُضِيَ عَلَيْهِمْ، وَمَضَى عَلَيْهِمْ. قَالَ فَقَالَ: أَفَلَا يَكُونُ ظُلْمًا؟ قَالَ: فَفَزِعْتُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَزَعًا شديدا، وقلت: كل شي خَلْقُ اللَّهِ وَمِلْكُ يَدِهِ، فَلَا يُسْأَلُ عَمَّا يَفْعَلُ وَهُمْ يُسْأَلُونَ. فَقَالَ لِي: يَرْحَمُكَ اللَّهُ! إني لم أرد بما سألتك إلا لأحرز  عَقْلَكَ، إِنَّ رَجُلَيْنِ مِنْ مُزَيْنَةَ أَتَيَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَا: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، أَرَأَيْتَ مَا يَعْمَلُ النَّاسُ الْيَوْمَ وَيَكْدَحُونَ فِيهِ: أَشَيْءٌ قُضِيَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَمَضَى فِيهِمْ مِنْ قَدَرٍ قَدْ سَبَقَ، أَوْ فِيمَا يَسْتَقْبِلُونَ بِهِ مِمَّا أَتَاهُمْ بِهِ نَبِيُّهُمْ. وَثَبَتَتِ الْحُجَّةُ عليهم؟ فقال: (لا بل شي قُضِيَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَمَضَى فِيهِمْ. وَتَصْدِيقُ ذَلِكَ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: وَنَفْسٍ وَما سَوَّاها. فَأَلْهَمَها فُجُورَها وَتَقْواها).

This Hadeeth is mentioned in Sahih Muslim narrated by Sayyiduna Abu al-Aswad Du’ali, he says:  ‘Imran ibn Husain (may Allah be pleased with him) said to me:  What is your view about what the people do today in the world and strive for; is it something decreed for them or predestined for them or will their fate in the Hereafter be determined by the fact that their Prophets brought them teaching which they did not act upon? I said: Of course, it is something which is predetermined for them and preordained for them. He (further) said: Then, would it not be an injustice (to punish them)? I felt greatly disturbed because of that and said: Everything is created by Allah and lies in His Power. He would not be questioned as to what He does, but they would be questioned; thereupon he said to me: May Allah have mercy upon you, I did not mean to ask you but for testing your intelligence. Two men of the tribe of Muzaina came to Allah’s Messenger – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – and said: O Allah’s Messenger, what is your opinion that the people do in the world and strive for, is something decreed for them; something preordained for them and will their fate in the Hereafter be determined by the fact that their Prophets brought them teachings which they did not act upon. and thus they became deserving of punishment? Thereupon, he said: Of course, it happens as it is decreed by destiny and preordained for them, and this view is confirmed by this verse of the Book of Allah, the Exalted and Glorious:

وَنَفْسٍ وَما سَوَّاها.

And by (oath of) the soul and by (oath of) Him Who made it proper.

 فَأَلْهَمَها فُجُورَها وَتَقْواها

And inspired in it the knowledge of its sins and its piety.

(Al-Shams 91, Verse 7-8)

Tafsir Qurtubi (Al-Jame’ Li Ahkaam al-Quran) Imam Shamsuddin Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Qurtubi t D. 671 A.H.

Tafsir al-Jalalain                                                                                                                        تفسیر الجلالین                                                

{فَأَلْهَمَهَا فُجُورهَا وَتَقْوَاهَا} بَيَّنَ لَهَا طَرِيق الْخَيْر والشر

And inspired to discern its vices and piety i.e. He pointed out to it the path of good and that of evil.

Tafsir al-Jalalain of Imam Jalaaluddin Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Mahalli al-Shafe’i t D. 864 A.H. and Imam Jalaaluddin Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr al-Suyooti al-Shafe’i t D. 911 A.H.

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