وَ الَّیۡلِ اِذَا یَغْشٰیۙ﴿۱﴾

By (oath of) the night when it covers

Tafsir al-Kabeer                                                                                                 التفسیر الکبیر                        

قَالَ الْقَفَّالُ رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ: نَزَلَتْ هَذِهِ السُّورَةُ فِي أَبِي بَكْرٍ وَإِنْفَاقِهِ عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِينَ، وَفِي أُمَيَّةَ بْنِ خَلَفٍ وَبُخْلِهِ وَكُفْرِهِ بِاللَّهِ، إِلَّا أَنَّهَا وَإِنْ كَانَتْ كَذَلِكَ لَكِنَّ مَعَانِيَهَا عَامَّةٌ لِلنَّاسِ

Sayyiduna Qaffal – may Allah be pleased with him – said:  This Surah was revealed regarding Sayyiduna Abu Bakr – may Allah be pleased with him – and his spending on the Muslims, and about Umayyah ibn khalaf and his miserliness, but aside from these factors, its meaning is applicable to people in general as well.

Tafsir al-Kabeer (Mafateeh al-Ghaib) of Imam Fakhruddin Muhammad ibn Umar al-Raazi al-Shafe’i t D. 606 A.H.

Tafsir al-Qurtubi                                                                                                                         تفسیر القرطبی                                                    

وَرَوَى سَعِيدٌ عَنْ قَتَادَةَ قَالَ: أَوَّلُ مَا خَلَقَ اللَّهُ النُّورُ وَالظُّلْمَةُ، ثُمَّ مَيَّزَ بَيْنَهُمَا، فَجَعَلَ الظُّلْمَةَ لَيْلًا أَسْوَدَ مُظْلِمًا، وَالنُّورَ نَهَارًا مُضِيئًا مُبْصِرًا.

Sayyiduna Sa’eed reported from Sayyiduna Qatadah – may Allah be pleased with them, he said:  The first thing Allah Almighty created was light and darkness, He then made them distinct, so He turned the darkness into dark black night and the light into brightly lit day.

Tafsir Qurtubi (Al-Jame’ Li Ahkaam al-Quran) Imam Shamsuddin Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Qurtubi t D. 671 A.H.

Tafsir al-Jalalain                                                                                                                        تفسیر الجلالین                                                

{وَاللَّيْل إِذَا يَغْشَى} بِظُلْمَتِهِ كُلّ مَا بَيْن السماء والأرض

By the night as it covers, with its darkness all that is between the heaven and the earth.

Tafsir al-Jalalain of Imam Jalaaluddin Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Mahalli al-Shafe’i t D. 864 A.H. and Imam Jalaaluddin Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr al-Suyooti al-Shafe’i t D. 911 A.H.

Tafsir al-Durr al-Manthoor                                                                              تفسیر الدر المنثور                                         

وَأخرج ابْن أبي حَاتِم بِسَنَد ضَعِيف عَن ابْن عَبَّاس: أَن رجلا كَانَت لَهُ نَخْلَة فرعها فِي دَار رجل فَقير ذِي عِيَال فَكَانَ الرجل إِذا جَاءَ فَدخل الدَّار فَصَعدَ إِلَى النَّخْلَة ليَأْخُذ مِنْهَا الثَّمَرَة فَرُبمَا تقع ثَمَرَة فيأخذها صبيان الْفَقِير فَينزل من نخلته  فَيَأْخُذ الثَّمَرَة من أَيْديهم وَإِن وجدهَا فِي فَم أحدهم أَدخل أُصْبُعه حَتَّى يخرج الثَّمَرَة من فِيهِ فَشَكا ذَلِك الرجل إِلَى النَّبِي صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم فَقَالَ: اذْهَبْ وَلَقي النَّبِي صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم صَاحب النَّخْلَة

فَقَالَ لَهُ: أَعْطِنِي نخلتك المائلة الَّتِي فرعها فِي دَار فلَان وَلَك بهَا نَخْلَة فِي الْجنَّة

فَقَالَ لَهُ الرجل: لقد أَعْطَيْت وَإِن لي لنخلاً كثيرا وَمَا فِيهِ نخل أعجب إِلَيّ ثَمَرَة مِنْهَا

ثمَّ ذهب الرجل وَلَقي رجلا كَانَ يسمع الْكَلَام من رَسُول الله صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم لصَاحب النَّخْلَة فَأتى رَسُول الله: فَقَالَ أَعْطِنِي مَا أَعْطَيْت الرجل إِن أَنا أَخَذتهَا

قَالَ: نعم فَذهب الرجل فلقي صَاحب النَّخْلَة ولكليهما نخل فَقَالَ لَهُ صَاحب النَّخْلَة: أشعرت أَن مُحَمَّدًا أَعْطَانِي بنخلتي المائلة إِلَى دَار فلَان نَخْلَة فِي الْجنَّة فَقلت: لقد أَعْطَيْت وَلَكِن يُعجبنِي ثَمَرهَا ولي نخل كثير مَا فِيهِ نَخْلَة أعجب إليّ ثَمَرَة مِنْهَا فَقَالَ لَهُ الآخر: أَتُرِيدُ بيعهَا فَقَالَ: لَا إِلَّا أَن أعطي بهَا مَا أُرِيد وَلَا أَظن أعْطى

قَالَ: فكم تؤمل فِيهَا قَالَ: أَرْبَعِينَ نَخْلَة فَقَالَ لَهُ الرجل: لقد جِئْت بِأَمْر عَظِيم تطلب بنخلتك المائلة أَرْبَعِينَ نَخْلَة

ثمَّ سكت عَنهُ فَقَالَ: أَنا أُعْطِيك أَرْبَعِينَ نَخْلَة فَقَالَ لَهُ: أشهد إِن كنت صَادِقا

فَأشْهد لَهُ بِأَرْبَعِينَ نَخْلَة بنخلته المائلة فَمَكثَ سَاعَة ثمَّ قَالَ: لَيْسَ بيني وَبَيْنك بيع لم نفترق

فَقَالَ لَهُ الرجل: وَلست بِأَحَق حِين أَعطيتك أَرْبَعِينَ نَخْلَة بنخلتك المائلة

فَقَالَ لَهُ: أُعْطِيك على أَن تُعْطِينِي كَمَا أُرِيد تعطينها على سَاق

فَسكت عَنهُ ثمَّ قَالَ: هِيَ لَك على سَاق

قَالَ: ثمَّ ذهب إِلَى النَّبِي صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم فَقَالَ لَهُ: يَا رَسُول الله إِن النَّخْلَة قد صَارَت لي فَهِيَ لَك

فَذهب رَسُول الله صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم إِلَى صَاحب الدَّار فَقَالَ: النَّخْلَة لَك ولعيالك

فَأنْزل الله {وَاللَّيْل إِذا يغشى} إِلَى آخر السُّورَة

Sayyiduna Ibn ‘Abbas – may Allah be pleased with them – reported:

A man had a date tree whose branches were hanging into a poor man’s house who was living there with his family.  Sometimes as this man entered his house, he would climb the tree to pluck some dates from it but it used to fall and the poor man’s children used to take it but he would then come down from the tree and take the dates from their hands, and if they ate it, he would insert his finger into their mouth and take the date out.  The poor man then complained to the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – about him, so the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – told him, “You may leave.”   He approached the owner of the date tree and told him, “Give me your date tree that hangs into the poor man’s house and in lieu of that, there will be a date tree for you in Paradise.”

The man replied, “I would have given it to you, because although I have so many trees but the dates from this tree seem to be the tastiest to me.”

The man then left and there was another man who was listening to the conversation of the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – with the owner of the date tree.  That man came to the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – and said to him, “Would you offer me the same what you had offered the man if I manage to take the tree from him?”

He replied, “Yes.”  The man left and met the owner of the tree, and since both of them owned trees, he said to the owner, “Do you have an idea that Sayyiduna Muhammad – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – has granted me paradise in exchange for the tree that hangs in this person’s house?”  He responded, “I would have given it to you, because although I have so many trees but the dates from this tree seem to be the tastiest to me.”  He then asked him, “Do you want to sell it?”  He said, “No, unless you offer me what I demand, and I don’t think you would offer what I have in mind.”

He said, “How much do have in mind?”  He replied, “40 date trees.”  The other man said, “You demand too much for a bent tree.”  He paused for a little and then said, “I give you 40 date trees.”  He said to him to testify if he is speaking the truth so he testified to give 40 date trees in exchange for his bent tree.  He stayed there for a moment then the man (owner) said, “There is no deal between you and I, because we haven’t parted ways yet.”

The man (buyer) said to him, “Do I not have more rights for purchasing your bent tree for 40 date trees?!”

The owner said, “I will give it to you on one condition, if you give me what I want (the 40 trees) in a single row.”  He kept quiet and then replied, “I give it you all in a row.”

The narrator says, “He went to the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessing upon him – and said to him, “Ya RasoolAllah, the date tree now belongs to me and I make you its owner.”

The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – then visited the poor man’s house and said to him, “The tree now belongs to you and your children.”

Allah Almighty then revealed this Surah till the end.

(Ibn Abi Hatim with a weak chain)

وَأخرج ابْن مرْدَوَيْه عَن ابْن عَبَّاس قَالَ: إِنِّي لأقول هَذِه السُّورَة نزلت فِي السماحة وَالْبخل {وَاللَّيْل إِذا يغشى}

Sayyiduna Ibn ‘Abbas – may Allah be pleased with him – is reported to have said: I say that this Surah was revealed about generosity and miserliness.

Tafsir Al-Durr al-Manthoor Bi al-Tafsir al-Mathoor of Imam Jalaaluddin Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr al-Suyooti al-Shafe’i t D. 911 A.H.

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