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اِنَّ شَانِئَکَ ہُوَ الْاَبْتَرُ ٪﴿۳﴾

Undoubtedly, one who is your enemy, is cut off from every good.

 

Tafsir al-Kabeer                                                                                                 التفسیر الکبیر

وَفِي الْآيَةِ مَسَائِلُ:

الْمَسْأَلَةُ الْأُولَى: ذَكَرُوا فِي سَبَبِ النُّزُولِ وُجُوهًا

The following issues come to light in this verse:

  1. Views of Exegetists about the reasons of its revelation:

 

أَحَدُهَا: أَنَّهُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ كَانَ يَخْرُجُ مِنَ الْمَسْجِدِ، وَالْعَاصُ بْنُ وَائِلٍ السَّهْمِيُّ يَدْخُلُ فَالْتَقَيَا فَتَحَدَّثَا، وَصَنَادِيدُ قُرَيْشٍ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ فَلَمَّا دَخَلَ قَالُوا مَنِ الَّذِي كُنْتَ تَتَحَدَّثُ مَعَهُ فَقَالَ: ذَلِكَ الْأَبْتَرُ، وَأَقُولُ: إِنَّ ذَلِكَ مِنْ إِسْرَارِ بَعْضِهِمْ مَعَ بَعْضٍ، مَعَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى أَظْهَرَهُ، فَحِينَئِذٍ يَكُونُ ذَلِكَ مُعْجِزًا

وَرُوِيَ أَيْضًا أَنَّ الْعَاصَ بْنَ وَائِلٍ كَانَ يَقُولُ: إِنَّ مُحَمَّدًا أَبْتَرُ لَا ابْنَ لَهُ يَقُومُ مَقَامَهُ بعده، فإذا مات انقطع ذكره واسترحم مِنْهُ، وَكَانَ قَدْ مَاتَ ابْنُهُ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ مِنْ خَدِيجَةَ

وَهَذَا قَوْلُ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ وَمُقَاتِلٍ وَالْكَلْبِيِّ وَعَامَّةِ أَهْلِ التَّفْسِيرِ

  1. As Waail al-Sahmi entered the Masjid the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – was exiting the Masjid at the same time. They met each other and had a conversation while the leaders of Quraish were in the Masjid.  When he entered, they asked him, “Whom were you talking to?”  He replied, “to that “Abtar” i.e. deprived off every good.”  Although it was their secretive conversation but Allah Almighty revealed it.  It is therefore a miracle.

 

It is also narrated that Al-‘Aas ibn Waail used to say, “Muhammad is deprived off every good, for he has no son to become his successor.  Therefore, when he dies, his memories will be forgotten.”  Sayyiduna Abdullah – may Allah be pleased with him – who was born from Sayyidah Khadijah – may Allah be pleased with her – had already passed away.

 

This is the view of Sayyiduna Ibn ‘Abbas, Muqatil, Al-Kalbi and all the exegetists in general.

 

الْقَوْلُ الثَّانِي: رُوِيَ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ لَمَّا قَدِمَ كَعْبُ بْنُ الأشرف مكة أتاه جماعة قُرَيْشٍ فَقَالُوا:نَحْنُ أَهْلُ السِّقَايَةِ وَالسَّدَانَةِ وَأَنْتَ سَيِّدُ أَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ، فَنَحْنُ خَيْرٌ أَمْ هَذَا الْأَبْتَرُ مِنْ قَوْمِهِ، يَزْعُمُ أَنَّهُ خَيْرٌ مِنَّا فَقَالَ:بَلْ أَنْتُمْ خَيْرٌ مِنْهُ فَنَزَلَ: إِنَّ شانِئَكَ هُوَ الْأَبْتَرُ وَنَزَلَ أَيْضًا: أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا نَصِيباً مِنَ الْكِتابِ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْجِبْتِ وَالطَّاغُوتِ [النِّسَاءِ: 51]

  1. It is narrated from Sayyiduna Ibn ‘Abbas – may Allah be pleased with them – that when Ka’b ibn Ashraf came to Makkah Mukarramah, a group of Quraish met him and said, “We are the people of ZamZam and treasurers of the Holy Ka’bah and you are the leader of the people of Madinah Munawwarah. So are we better or this man who has cut off links with his nation, and still thinks that he is better than us?”  He said, “You are better than him.”  It was then the following verse was revealed:

اِنَّ شَانِئَکَ ہُوَ الْاَبْتَرُ ٪﴿۳﴾

Undoubtedly, one who is your enemy, is cut off from every good.

(Al-Kauthar 108, Verse 3)

Along with the following verse:

اَلَمْ تَرَ اِلَی الَّذِیۡنَ اُوۡتُوۡا نَصِیۡبًا مِّنَ الْکِتٰبِ یُؤْمِنُوۡنَ بِالْجِبْتِ وَالطّٰغُوۡتِ

Have you not observed those who were given a portion of the Book, They believe in idols and demons.

 

وَالْقَوْلُ الثَّالِثُ: قَالَ عِكْرِمَةُ وَشَهْرُ بْنُ حَوْشَبٍ: لَمَّا أَوْحَى اللَّهُ إِلَى رَسُولِهِ وَدَعَا قُرَيْشًا إِلَى الْإِسْلَامِ، قَالُوا: بَتَرَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَيْ خَالَفَنَا وَانْقَطَعَ/ عَنَّا، فَأَخْبَرَ تَعَالَى أَنَّهُمْ هُمُ الْمَبْتُورُونَ

  • Sayyiduna ‘Ikramah and Shahr ibn Haushab – may Allah be pleased with them – said: When Allah Almighty sent revelation upon the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – and he called the Quraish towards Islam, they said, “Muhammad has cut ties with us i.e. he has turned against us and cut links with us.  Allah Almighty then declared that it is them who are cut off from every good.

 

الْقَوْلُ الرَّابِعُ: نَزَلَتْ فِي أَبِي جَهْلٍ فَإِنَّهُ لَمَّا مَاتَ ابْنُ رَسُولِ الله قال أبو جهل: إن أُبْغِضُهُ لِأَنَّهُ أَبْتَرُ، وَهَذَا مِنْهُ حَمَاقَةٌ حَيْثُ أَبْغَضَهُ بِأَمْرٍ لَمْ يَكُنْ بِاخْتِيَارِهِ فَإِنَّ مَوْتَ الِابْنِ لَمْ يَكُنْ مُرَادَهُ

  1. This verse was revealed about Abu Jahl. When the Holy Prophet’s – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – son had passed away, Abu Jahl said, “I hate him because he is deprived of every good.”  It was in fact his foolishness, for he hated him due to the fact which none has control over, for he never wished for his son to die.

 

الْقَوْلُ الْخَامِسُ: نَزَلَتْ فِي عَمِّهِ أَبِي لَهَبٍ فَإِنَّهُ لَمَّا شَافَهَهُ بِقَوْلِهِ: تَبًّا لَكَ كَانَ يَقُولُ فِي غَيْبَتِهِ: إِنَّهُ أَبْتَرُ

  1. It was revealed about his uncle Abu Lahab because he had foretold about his destruction. He used to say in his absence, “He is deprived of every good.”

 

وَالْقَوْلُ السَّادِسُ: أَنَّهَا نَزَلَتْ فِي عُقْبَةَ بْنِ أَبِي مُعَيْطٍ، وَإِنَّهُ هُوَ الَّذِي كَانَ يَقُولُ ذَلِكَ

وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لَا يَبْعُدُ فِي كُلِّ أُولَئِكَ الْكَفَرَةِ أَنْ يَقُولُوا مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ فَإِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا يَقُولُونَ فِيهِ مَا هُوَ أَسْوَأُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ، وَلَعَلَّ الْعَاصَ بْنَ وَائِلٍ كَانَ أَكْثَرَهُمْ مُوَاظَبَةً عَلَى هَذَا الْقَوْلِ فَلِذَلِكَ اشْتَهَرَتِ الرِّوَايَاتُ بِأَنَّ الْآيَةَ نَزَلَتْ فِيهِ.

  1. It was revealed about ‘Uqabah ibn Abi Mu’ait, because he is the one who used to say that.

 

It is possible that all the disbelievers said it, for they even spoke more harshly about him but Al-‘Aas ibn Waail was persistent about it, and therefore it became famous that the verse was revealed about him.

 

الْمَسْأَلَةُ الثَّانِيَةُ: الشَّنَآنُ هُوَ الْبُغْضُ وَالشَّانِئُ هُوَ الْمُبْغِضُ، وَأَمَّا الْبَتْرُ فَهُوَ فِي اللُّغَةِ اسْتِئْصَالُ الْقَطْعِ ۔۔۔ وَيُقَالُ: لِلَّذِي لَا عَقِبَ لَهُ أَبْتَرُ،وَكَذَلِكَ لِمَنِ انْقَطَعَ عَنْهُ الْخَيْرُ.

  1. The meaning of Al-Shan’aan is animosity, and Al-Shaane’ means enemy, and the lexical definition of Al-Batr is to cut off the root. One being Abtar means that he has no descendant after him.  Similarly, the one who is deprived off every good is also called Abtar.

 

ثُمَّ إِنَّ الْكُفَّارَ لَمَّا وَصَفُوهُ بِذَلِكَ بَيَّنَ تَعَالَى أَنَّ الْمَوْصُوفَ بِهَذِهِ الصِّفَةِ هُوَ ذَلِكَ الْمُبَغِضُ عَلَى سَبِيلِ الْحَصْرِ فِيهِ

When the infidels attributed this to him, Allah Almighty declared that the one attributed with it is none other than his enemy.

 

ثُمَّ ذَلِكَ إِمَّا أَنْ يُحْمَلَ عَلَى خَيْرٍ مُعَيَّنٍ، أَوْ عَلَى جَمِيعِ الْخَيْرَاتِ أَمَّا الْأَوَّلُ: فَيَحْتَمِلُ وُجُوهًا

The meaning either denotes a specific loss or deprivation off every good.  The former meaning could be based upon the following interpretations:

أَحَدُهَا: قَالَ السُّدِّيُّ: كَانَتْ قُرَيْشٌ يَقُولُونَ لِمَنْ مَاتَ الذُّكُورُ مِنْ أَوْلَادِهِ بُتِرَ، فَلَمَّا مَاتَ ابْنُهُ الْقَاسِمُ وَعَبْدُ اللَّهِ بِمَكَّةَ وَإِبْرَاهِيمُ بِالْمَدِينَةِ قَالُوا: بُتِرَ فَلَيْسَ لَهُ مَنْ يَقُومُ مَقَامَهُ، ثُمَّ إِنَّهُ تَعَالَى بَيَّنَ أَنَّ عَدُوَّهُ هُوَ الْمَوْصُوفُ بِهَذِهِ الصِّفَةِ، فَإِنَّا نَرَى أَنَّ نَسْلَ أُولَئِكَ الْكَفَرَةِ قَدِ انْقَطَعَ، وَنَسْلُهُ عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ يَزْدَادُ وَيَنْمُو وَهَكَذَا يَكُونُ إِلَى قِيَامِ الْقِيَامَةِ

  1. Imam Suddi has said: The Quraish to call a person Abtar when his male descendants passed away, so when his son, Sayyiduna Al-Qasim and Abdullah – may Allah be pleased with them – passed away in Makkah Mukarramah and Sayyiduna Ibrahim – may Allah be pleased with him – in Madinah Muawwarah, they said, “He has become Abtar, for there is none who would take his place.”  Allah Almighty then declared that indeed it is rather his enemy who is Abtar, because it was the lineage of those infidels which was cut off but the lineage of the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – increased day after day and will continue till the Day of Judgment.

 

وَثَانِيهَا: قَالَ الْحَسَنُ: عَنَوْا بِكَوْنِهِ أَبْتَرَ أَنَّهُ يَنْقَطِعُ عَنِ الْمَقْصُودِ قَبْلَ بُلُوغِهِ، وَاللَّهُ تَعَالَى بَيَّنَ أَنَّ خَصْمَهُ هُوَ الَّذِي يَكُونُ كَذَلِكَ، فَإِنَّهُمْ صَارُوا مُدْبِرِينَ مَغْلُوبِينَ مَقْهُورِينَ، وَصَارَتْ رَايَاتُ الْإِسْلَامِ عَالِيَةً، وَأَهْلُ الشَّرْقِ وَالْغَرْبِ لَهَا مُتَوَاضِعَةٌ

  1. Sayyiduna Hasan – may Allah be pleased with him – said: They meant by calling him Abtar that he would not reach his objective but Allah Almighty declared that it will rather be the case for his enemies, and therefore, they became deprived, disgraced and defeated while Islam has reached its peak.  People from east to west embraced Islam.

 

وَثَالِثُهَا: زَعَمُوا أَنَّهُ أَبْتَرُ لِأَنَّهُ لَيْسَ لَهُ نَاصِرٌ وَمُعِينٌ، وَقَدْ كَذَّبُوا لِأَنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى هُوَ مَوْلَاهُ، وَجِبْرِيلُ وَصَالِحُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ، وَأَمَّا الْكَفَرَةُ فَلَمْ يَبْقَ لَهُمْ نَاصِرٌ وَلَا حَبِيبٌ

  • They thought he was Abtar because he did not have any helpers and associates, which was a lie, for indeed Allah Almighty is his Helper, and Sayyiduna Jibreel – peace be upon him – and pious believers are his helpers but on the other hand, no helpers of the infidels remained with them.

 

وَرَابِعُهَا: الْأَبْتَرُ هُوَ الْحَقِيرُ الذَّلِيلُ، رُوِيَ أَنَّ أَبَا جَهْلٍ اتَّخَذَ ضِيَافَةً لِقَوْمٍ، ثُمَّ إِنَّهُ وَصَفَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ بِهَذَا الْوَصْفِ، ثُمَّ قَالَ: قُومُوا حَتَّى نَذْهَبَ إِلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَأُصَارِعَهُ وَأَجْعَلَهُ ذَلِيلًا حَقِيرًا، فَلَمَّا وَصَلُوا إِلَى دَارِ خَدِيجَةَ وَتَوَافَقُوا عَلَى ذَلِكَ أَخْرَجَتْ خَدِيجَةُ بِسَاطًا، فَلَمَّا تَصَارَعَا جَعَلَ أَبُو جَهْلٍ يَجْتَهِدُ فِي أَنْ يَصْرَعَهُ، وَبَقِيَ النَّبِيُّ عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ وَاقِفًا كَالْجَبَلِ، ثُمَّ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ رَمَاهُ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَلَى أَقْبَحِ وَجْهٍ، فَلَمَّا رَجَعَ أَخَذَهُ بِالْيَدِ الْيُسْرَى، لِأَنَّ الْيُسْرَى لِلِاسْتِنْجَاءِ، فَكَانَ نَجِسًا فَصَرَعَهُ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ مَرَّةً أُخْرَى وَوَضَعَ قَدَمَهُ عَلَى صَدْرِهِ، فَذَكَرَ بَعْضُ الْقُصَّاصِ أَنَّ الْمُرَادَ مِنْ قَوْلِهِ: إِنَّ شانِئَكَ هُوَ الْأَبْتَرُ هَذِهِ الْوَاقِعَةُ

  1. A meaning of Abtar is disgraced and insulted. It is reported that Abu Jahl had facilitated a meeting with the nation and described the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – as such.  He then said, “Get up and let’s go to Muhammad.  I will wrestle with him and disgrace him.  When he went to Sayyidah Khadijah – may Allah be pleased with her – they agreed on wrestling.  Sayyidah Khadijah – may Allah be pleased with her – laid down the mat.  When the wrestling began, and Abu Jahl put all his effort to put him down, he stayed firm as a mountain.  The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – gave one hard slap on his ugliest face.  When he turned, he grabbed him with his left hand – for this is the hand suitable for cleaning up filth, because he was nothing but filth – and put him down twice and put his foot on his chest.  Some historians have said that this was the reason for the revelation of the verse:

اِنَّ شَانِئَکَ ہُوَ الْاَبْتَرُ ٪﴿۳﴾

Undoubtedly, one who is your enemy, is cut off from every good.

(Al-Kauthar 108, Verse 3)

 

وَخَامِسُهَا: أَنَّ الْكَفَرَةَ لَمَّا وَصَفُوهُ بِهَذَا الْوَصْفِ، قِيلَ: إِنَّ شانِئَكَ هُوَ الْأَبْتَرُ أَيِ الَّذِي قَالُوهُ فِيكَ كَلَامٌ فَاسِدٌ يَضْمَحِلُّ وَيَفْنَى، وَأَمَّا الْمَدْحُ الَّذِي ذَكَرْنَاهُ فِيكَ، فَإِنَّهُ بَاقٍ عَلَى وَجْهِ الدَّهْرِ

  1. When the infidels attributed this cheap attribute to him, Allah Almighty declared that indeed your enemies are cut off from every good who have said such things about you. What they said will disappear but the praises We have attributed to you will remain through time.

 

الْمَسْأَلَةُ الثَّالِثَةُ: الْكُفَّارُ لَمَّا شَتَمُوهُ، فَهُوَ تَعَالَى أَجَابَ عَنْهُ مِنْ غَيْرِ وَاسِطَةٍ فَقَالَ: إِنَّ شانِئَكَ هُوَ الْأَبْتَرُ وَهَكَذَا سُنَّةُ الْأَحْبَابِ، فَإِنَّ الْحَبِيبَ إِذَا سَمِعَ مَنْ يَشْتُمُ حَبِيبَهُ تَوَلَّى بِنَفْسِهِ جَوَابَهُ، فَهَهُنَا تَوَلَّى الْحَقُّ سُبْحَانَهُ جَوَابَهُمْ، وَذَكَرَ مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ فِي مَوَاضِعَ

  1. When the infidels uttered profanities about him, Allah Almighty responded to them:

اِنَّ شَانِئَکَ ہُوَ الْاَبْتَرُ ٪﴿۳﴾

Undoubtedly, one who is your enemy, is cut off from every good.

(Al-Kauthar 108, Verse 3)

It is the method of lovers that when the lover hears that someone has been vulgar to his beloved, the lover himself respond on behalf of the beloved.  Here, Allah Almighty has responded to the infidels Himself.

Similarly, Allah Almighty has responded at many occasions.

 

حِينَ قَالُوا:هَلْ نَدُلُّكُمْ عَلى رَجُلٍ يُنَبِّئُكُمْ إِذا مُزِّقْتُمْ كُلَّ مُمَزَّقٍ إِنَّكُمْ لَفِي خَلْقٍ جَدِيدٍ أَفْتَرى عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِباً أَمْ بِهِ جِنَّةٌ [سَبَأٍ: 7، 8] فَقَالَ سُبْحَانَهُ: بَلِ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْآخِرَةِ فِي الْعَذابِ وَالضَّلالِ الْبَعِيدِ [سَبَأٍ: 8]

When they said:

ہَلْ نَدُلُّکُمْ عَلٰی رَجُلٍ یُّنَبِّئُکُمْ اِذَا مُزِّقْتُمْ کُلَّ مُمَزَّقٍ ۙ اِنَّکُمْ لَفِیۡ خَلْقٍ جَدِیۡدٍ ۚ﴿۷﴾

‘Shall we point you a person who will inform you that when being torn into pieces you become small particles, you are then to be made new?

اَفْتَرٰی عَلَی اللہِ کَذِبًا اَمۡ بِہٖ جِنَّۃٌ ؕ

Has he forged a lie against Allah or is he afflicted with madness?’

(Al-Saba 34, Verse 7-8)

Allah Almighty stated:

بَلِ الَّذِیۡنَ لَا یُؤْمِنُوۡنَ بِالْاٰخِرَۃِ فِی الْعَذَابِ وَالضَّلٰلِ الْبَعِیۡدِ ﴿۸﴾

Nay, but those who do not believe in the Hereafter are in the torment and far-gone error.

(Al-Saba 34, Verse 8)

 

وَحِينَ قَالُوا: هُوَ مَجْنُونٌ أَقْسَمَ ثَلَاثًا، ثُمَّ قَالَ: مَا أَنْتَ بِنِعْمَةِ رَبِّكَ بِمَجْنُونٍ [الْقَلَمِ: 2] وَلَمَّا قَالُوا: لَسْتَ مُرْسَلًا [الرَّعْدِ: 43] أَجَابَ فَقَالَ: يس وَالْقُرْآنِ الْحَكِيمِ إِنَّكَ لَمِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ [يس: 1- 3]

When they said that he is mad, Allah Almighty swore oath three times and then stated:

مَاۤ اَنۡتَ بِنِعْمَۃِ رَبِّکَ بِمَجْنُوۡنٍ ۚ﴿۲﴾

You are not. by the grace of your Lord, mad.

(Al-Qalam 68, Verse 2)

And when they said:

لَسْتَ مُرْسَلًا

You are not a messenger.

(Al-Ra’d 13, Verse 43)

Allah Almighty responded:

یٰسٓ ۚ﴿۱﴾

  Yasin.

وَ الْقُرْاٰنِ الْحَکِیۡمِ ۙ﴿۲﴾

  By the wise Quran.

اِنَّکَ لَمِنَ الْمُرْسَلِیۡنَ ۙ﴿۳﴾

  No doubt, you are amongst the Messengers.

(Yasin 36, Verse 1-3)

 

وَحِينَ قَالُوا: أَإِنَّا لَتارِكُوا آلِهَتِنا لِشاعِرٍ مَجْنُونٍ [الصَّافَّاتِ: 36] رَدَّ عَلَيْهِمْ وَقَالَ:بَلْ جاءَ بِالْحَقِّ وَصَدَّقَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ [الصَّافَّاتِ: 37] فَصَدَّقَهُ، ثم ذكر وعيد خصمائه، وقال: إِنَّكُمْ لَذائِقُوا الْعَذابِ الْأَلِيمِ [الصَّافَّاتِ: 38]

When they said:

وَ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ اَئِنَّا لَتَارِکُوۡۤا اٰلِہَتِنَا لِشَاعِرٍمَّجْنُوۡنٍ ﴿ؕ۳۶﴾

And they used to say, shall we indeed leave our gods, because of the saying of a mad poet?

(Al-Saaffaat 37, Verse 36)

He refuted them and stated:

بَلْ جَآءَ بِالْحَقِّ وَ صَدَّقَ الْمُرْسَلِیۡنَ ﴿۳۷﴾

No indeed, rather he has brought the truth and he has confirmed the Messengers.

(Al-Saaffaat 37, Verse 37)

He confirmed his authenticity then mentioned the chastisement of his enemies and stated:

اِنَّکُمْ لَذَآئِقُوا الْعَذَابِ الْاَلِیۡمِ ﴿ۚ۳۸﴾

Undoubtedly, you are to taste a painful agony.

(Al-Saaffaat 37, Verse 38)

 

وَحِينَ قَالَ حَاكِيًا: أَمْ يَقُولُونَ شاعِرٌ [الطُّورِ: 30] قَالَ: وَما عَلَّمْناهُ الشِّعْرَ [يس: 69]

When He narrated their saying:

اَمْ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ شَاعِرٌ

Or they say, ‘He is a poet’

(Al-Tur 52, Verse 30)

He stated:

وَمَا عَلَّمْنٰہُ الشِّعْرَ

And We have not taught him to compose (poetic) verses.

(Yasin 36, Verse 69)

 

ولما حكى عنهم قوله: إِنْ هَذا إِلَّا إِفْكٌ افْتَراهُ وَأَعانَهُ عَلَيْهِ قَوْمٌ آخَرُونَ [الْفُرْقَانِ: 4] سَمَّاهُمْ كَاذِبِينَ بِقَوْلِهِ: فَقَدْ جاؤُ ظُلْماً وَزُوراً [الْفُرْقَانِ: 4]

When He narrated their saying:

اِنْ ہٰذَاۤ اِلَّاۤ اِفْکُۨ افْتَرٰىہُ وَ اَعَانَہٗ عَلَیۡہِ قَوْمٌ اٰخَرُوۡنَ ۚۛ

‘This is not but a calumny which he has fabricated, and some other people have helped him in it.

(Al-Furqan 25, Verse 4)

He called them liars and stated:

فَقَدْ جَآءُوۡ ظُلْمًا وَّزُوۡرًا ۚ﴿ۛ۴﴾

Undoubtedly, those unjust people have brought more falsehood.

(Al-Furqan 25, Verse 4)

 

وَلَمَّا قَالُوا: مالِ هذَا الرَّسُولِ يَأْكُلُ الطَّعامَ وَيَمْشِي فِي الْأَسْواقِ [الْفُرْقَانِ: 7] أَجَابَهُمْ فَقَالَ: وَما أَرْسَلْنا قَبْلَكَ مِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ إِلَّا إِنَّهُمْ لَيَأْكُلُونَ الطَّعامَ وَيَمْشُونَ فِي الْأَسْواقِ [الْفُرْقَانِ: 20] فَمَا أَجَلَّ هَذِهِ الْكَرَامَةَ.

When they said:

وَقَالُوۡا مَالِ ہٰذَا الرَّسُوۡلِ یَاۡکُلُ الطَّعَامَ وَ یَمْشِیۡ فِی الْاَسْوَاقِ

And they said, ‘what happened to this Messenger, he eats food, and walks about the markets’.

(Al-Furqan 25, Verse 7)

He replied to them and stated:

وَ مَاۤ اَرْسَلْنَا قَبْلَکَ مِنَ الْمُرْسَلِیۡنَ اِلَّاۤ اِنَّہُمْ لَیَاۡکُلُوۡنَ الطَّعَامَ وَ یَمْشُوۡنَ فِی الْاَسْوَاقِ

And as many Messengers We sent before you, they were all the same, they ate food and walked about in the markets.

(Al-Furqan 25, Verse 20)

Can there be anything greater than that?  (When Allah Almighty Himself defends him, Allahu Akbar!)

 

الْمَسْأَلَةُ الرَّابِعَةُ: اعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ تَعَالَى لَمَّا بَشَّرَهُ بِالنِّعَمِ الْعَظِيمَةِ، وَعَلِمَ تَعَالَى أَنَّ النِّعْمَةَ لَا تَهْنَأُ إِلَّا إِذَا صَارَ الْعَدُوُّ مَقْهُورًا، لَا جَرَمَ وَعَدَهُ بِقَهْرِ الْعَدُوِّ فَقَالَ: إِنَّ شانِئَكَ هُوَ الْأَبْتَرُ

  1. Know that when Allah Almighty gave him the glad tidings of great bounties, and the Almighty knew that a bounty does not make one happy until the enemy is defeated, therefore, He promised to disgrace his enemies and stated:

اِنَّ شَانِئَکَ ہُوَ الْاَبْتَرُ ٪﴿۳﴾

Undoubtedly, one who is your enemy, is cut off from every good.

(Al-Kauthar 108, Verse 3)

 

الْمَسْأَلَةُ الْخَامِسَةُ: اعْلَمْ أَنَّ مَنْ تَأَمَّلَ فِي مَطَالِعِ هَذِهِ السُّورَةِ وَمَقَاطِعِهَا عَرَفَ أَنَّ الْفَوَائِدَ الَّتِي ذَكَرْنَاهَا بِالنِّسْبَةِ إِلَى مَا اسْتَأْثَرَ اللَّهُ بِعِلْمِهِ مِنْ فَوَائِدِ هَذِهِ السُّورَةِ كَالْقَطْرَةِ فِي الْبَحْرِ.

  1. Know that whoever ponders over this Surah, from beginning to the end, will know that whatever we have mentioned so far is not even equal to a drop in the ocean compared to what Allah Almighty knows about the Surah.

 

Tafsir al-Kabeer (Mafateeh al-Ghaib) of Imam Fakhruddin Muhammad ibn Umar al-Raazi al-Shafe’i t D. 606 A.H.

 

Tafsir al-Baidawi                                                                                                                      تفسیر البیضاوی

إِنَّ شانِئَكَ إن من أبغضك لبغضه الله. هُوَ الْأَبْتَرُ الذي لا عقب له إذ لا يبقى له نسل ولا حسن ذكر، وأما أنت فتبقى ذريتك وحسن صيتك وآثار فضلك إلى يوم القيامة، ولك في الآخرة ما لا يدخل تحت الوصف.

 

i.e. indeed your enemy – whoever has animosity with you due to his animosity for Allah – is cut off from every good.  There will be no descendants for him, neither will their lineage, last nor will they be remembered with goodness but your lineage, your good-name and the effects of your excellence will last till the Day of Judgment, and whatever is reserved for you in the hereafter, cannot even be mentioned,

 

Tafsir al-Baidawi (Anwaar al-Tanzeel wa Asraar al-Taweel) of Imam Qadhi Abdullah ibn Umar al-Shiraazi al-Baidawi t D. 685 A.H.

 

Tafsir al-Nasafi                                                                                                                                                      تفسیر النسفی

{إن شانئك} ان من أبغضك من قومك بمخالفتك لهم {هُوَ الابتر} المنقطع عن كل خير لا أنت لأن كل من يولد إلى يوم القيامة من المؤمنين فهم أولادك وأعقابك وذكرك مرفوع على المنابر وعلى لسان كل عالم وذاكر إلى آخر الدهر يبدأ بذكر الله ويثني بذكرك ولك في الآخرة مالا يدخل تحت الوصف

Your enemy – whoever has animosity with you from amongst your nation, due to your disagreement with them – is Abtar i.e. cut off from every good but not you, for every believer who will be born till the Day of Judgment will be your children and descendants and your remembrance will be exalted on pulpits and on the tongues of every creation and Aalim till the Last Day, he will start with the Dhikr of Allah and praise you along with it, and whatever is reserved for you in the hereafter, cannot even be mentioned,

 

Tafsir al-Nasafi (Madarik al-Tanzeel) of Imam Abul Barakaat Abdullah ibn Ahmed al-Nasafi t D. 710 A.H.

 

Tafsir Rooh al-Bayaan                                                                                              تفسیر روح البیان

انهم زعموا حين مات ابنه عليه السلام القاسم وعبد الله بمكة ابراهيم بالمدينة ان محمدا صلى الله عليه وسلم ينقطع ذكره إذا انقطع عمره لفقدان نسله فنبه الله ان الذي ينقطع ذكره هو الذي يشنأه فاما هو فكما وصفه الله تعالى ورفعنا لك ذكرك وذلك انه أعطاه نسلا يبقون على مر الزمان فانظر كم قتل من أهل البيت ثم العالم ممتلئ منهم وجعله أبا للمؤمنين فهم أعقابه وأولاده الا يوم القيامة وقيض له من يراعيه ويراعى دينه الحق

والى هذا المعنى أشار امير المؤمنين رضى الله عنه العلماء باقون ما بقي الدهر أعيانهم مفقودة وآثارهم فى القلوب موجودة هذا فى العلماء الذين هم اتباعه عليه السلام فكيف هو وقد رفع الله ذكره وجعله خاتم الأنبياء عليهم السلام

When the son of the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – Sayyiduna Qasim and Abdullah passed away in Makkah Mukarramah and Sayyiduna Ibrahim in Madinah Munawwarah, the infidels thought that with the life of the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – his praises will also come to an end due to the ending of his lineage.  Allah Almighty then revealed this Surah and falsified the infidels, for he will be as Allah Almighty has stated:

وَ رَفَعْنَا لَکَ ذِکْرَکَ ؕ﴿۴﴾

And We have exalted for you your remembrance.

(Al-Inshirah 94, Verse 4)

Allah Almighty has bestowed him with such a lineage which will continue to dominate over the period of time.  Look how many Ahle Bayt have been martyred but the world is still blessed with the them.  Allah Almighty has made him a father to all the believers, so they are his children and descendants till the Day of Judgment and his true Deen will dominate.

Sayyiduna ‘Ali – may Allah be pleased with him – has stated, “The Ulama will remain till the end of time.  Even though when they cease to exist their signs will be luminous in the hearts.  If this is exclusive to the Ulama who are the followers of the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – then what would be the state of the beloved Prophet Himself – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – whose remembrance Allah has exalted and declared him to be the seal of Prophethood.

 

Tafsir Rooh al-Bayaan of Imam Isma’eel Haqqi ibn Mustafa al-Istanbuli Hanafi t D. 1127 A.H.

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