Download PDF: S112 V003 Tafseer of Ahlus Sunnah تفسیر اھل السنۃ

 

لَمْ یَلِدْ ۬ۙ وَ لَمْ یُوۡلَدْ ۙ﴿۳﴾

“He has no offspring, nor is He born from anything.”

 

Tafsir al-Baghawi                                                        تفسیر البغوی

قَالَ مُقَاتِلٌ: قَالَ مُشْرِكُو الْعَرَبِ: الْمَلَائِكَةُ بَنَاتُ اللَّهِ، وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ: عُزَيْرٌ ابْنُ اللَّهِ، وَقَالَتِ النَّصَارَى: الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ اللَّهِ، فَأَكْذَبَهُمُ اللَّهُ وَنَفَى عَنْ ذَاتِهِ الْوِلَادَةَ وَالْمِثْلَ .

Sayyiduna Muqatil – may Allah be pleased with him – said:  The Arab polytheists said, “The angels are Allah’s daughters.”  The jews said, “Sayyiduna ‘Uzair – peace be upon him – is the son of Allah.”  The Christians said, “Sayyiduna ‘Isa – peace be upon him – is the son of Allah.”  So, Allah Almighty falsified their claims and negated the notion of procreation from His Divine Being and any similarity to Him whatsoever.

 

عَنِ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: قَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى: كَذَّبَنِي ابْنُ آدَمَ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ ذَلِكَ، وَشَتَمَنِي وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ ذَلِكَ، فَأَمَّا تَكْذِيبُهُ إِيَّايَ فَقَوْلهُ: لَنْ يُعِيدَنِي كَمَا بَدَأَنِي، وَلَيْسَ أَوَّلُ الْخَلْقِ بِأَهْوَنَ عَلَيَّ مِنْ إِعَادَتِهِ، وَأَمَّا شَتْمُهُ إِيَّايَ فَقَوْلُهُ: اتَّخَذَ اللَّهُ وَلَدًا، وَأَنَا الْأَحَدُ الصَّمَدُ الَّذِي لَمْ أَلِدْ وَلَمْ أُولَدْ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لِي كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ

Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah – may Allah be pleased with him – reported:  The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – narrated that Allah Almighty has stated, “The son of Adam (peace be upon him) falsified Me while it was not appropriate for him (to do so) and committed blasphemy against Me while it was not appropriate for him.  His falsification of me is his statement that, “I have a son”; and his disbelief in Me is his statement that, “I shall not recreate him as I have created him before.”

 

Tafsir al-Baghawi (Ma’aalim al-Tanzeel) of Muhiyy al-Sunnah Imam Abu Muhammad Al-Husain ibn Mas’ood al-Baghwi al-Shafe’I t D. 510 A.H.

 

Tafsir al-Kabeer                                                                                                 التفسیر الکبیر

النَّصَارَى فَرِيقَانِ: مِنْهُمْ مَنْ قَالَ: عِيسَى وَلَدُ اللَّهِ حَقِيقَةً، وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ قَالَ: إِنَّ اللَّهَ اتَّخَذَهُ وَلَدًا تَشْرِيفًا لَهُ، كَمَا اتَّخَذَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ خَلِيلًا تَشْرِيفًا لَهُ، فَقَوْلُهُ: لَمْ يَلِدْ فِيهِ إِشَارَةٌ إِلَى نَفْيِ الْوَالِدِ فِي الْحَقِيقَةِ، وَقَوْلُهُ: لَمْ يَتَّخِذْ وَلَداً إِشَارَةٌ إِلَى نَفْيِ الْقِسْمِ الثَّانِي، وَلِهَذَا قَالَ: لَمْ يَتَّخِذْ وَلَداً وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ شَرِيكٌ فِي الْمُلْكِ [الإسراء: 111] لِأَنَّ الْإِنْسَانَ قَدْ يَتَّخِذُ وَلَدًا لِيَكُونَ نَاصِرًا وَمُعِينًا لَهُ عَلَى الْأَمْرِ الْمَطْلُوبِ، وَلِذَلِكَ قَالَ فِي سُورَةٍ أُخْرَى: قالُوا اتَّخَذَ اللَّهُ وَلَداً سُبْحانَهُ هُوَ الْغَنِيُّ [يُونُسَ: 68]

The christians had two groups; one believed that Sayyiduna ‘Isa – peace be upon him – is the biological son of Allah and the other held the view that Allah Almighty took him as his son to bestow honour upon him, as He had taken Sayyiduna Ibrahim – peace be upon him – as His friend to honour him.  So, Allah’s statement:

لَمْ یَلِدْ ۬ۙ

“He has no offspring.”

It negates any possibility of Allah Almighty to become a biological father to anyone and His statement:

لَمْ یَتَّخِذْ وَلَدًا

He has not taken a child for Himself.

(Bani Israel 17, Verse 111)

It negates the second possibility (of taking someone as His child).  It is for this reason that He has stated:

لَمْ یَتَّخِذْ وَلَدًا وَّ لَمۡ یَکُنۡ لَّہٗ شَرِیۡکٌ فِی الْمُلْکِ

He has not taken a child for Himself and no one is His partner in His kingdom.

(ibid)

For sometimes the humans do take someone as their child as a helper towards an intended cause, and it is for this reason He has stated in another Surah:

قَالُوا اتَّخَذَ اللہُ وَلَدًا سُبْحٰنَہٗ ؕ ہُوَ الْغَنِیُّ

They spoke, ‘Allah has taken to Him a son’ ‘Holy is He, The self-Sufficient.

(Yunus 10, Verse 68)

 

اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ إِشَارَةٌ إِلَى كَوْنِهِ تَعَالَى فِي ذَاتِهِ وَمَاهِيَّتِهِ مُنَزَّهًا عَنِ التَّرْكِيبِ، وَقَوْلُهُ: اللَّهُ الصَّمَدُ إِشَارَةٌ إِلَى نَفْيِ الْأَضْدَادِ وَالْأَنْدَادِ وَالشُّرَكَاءِ وَالْأَمْثَالِ وَهَذَانَ الْمَقَامَانِ الشَّرِيفَانِ مِمَّا حَصَلَ الِاتِّفَاقُ فِيهِمَا بَيْنَ أَرْبَابِ الْمِلَلِ وَالْأَدْيَانِ، وَبَيْنَ الْفَلَاسِفَةِ، إِلَّا أَنَّ مِنْ بَعْدِ هَذَا الْمَوْضِعِ حَصَلَ الِاخْتِلَافُ بَيْنَ أَرْبَابِ الْمِلَلِ وَبَيْنَ الْفَلَاسِفَةِ۔۔۔فَالْحَقُّ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى نَفَى الْوَالِدِيَّةَ أَوَّلًا، كَأَنَّهُ قِيلَ: إِنَّهُ لَمْ يَلِدِ الْعُقُولَ وَالنُّفُوسَ، ثُمَّ قَالَ: وَالشَّيْءُ الَّذِي هُوَ مُدَبِّرُ أَجْسَادِكُمْ وَأَرْوَاحِكُمْ وَعَالَمِكُمْ هَذَا لَيْسَ مَوْلُودًا مِنْ شَيْءٍ آخَرَ، فَلَا وَالِدَ وَلَا مَوْلُودَ وَلَا مُؤَثِّرَ إِلَّا الْوَاحِدُ الَّذِي هو الحق سبحانه.

اَللّٰہُ اَحَدٌ

Allah is One.

(Al-Ikhlas 112, Verse 1)

It denotes that the Divine Being of Allah Almighty is free from composition.

اَللّٰہُ الصَّمَدُ

Allah the Independent Care-free.

(Al-khlas 112, Verse 2)

Denotes the negation of any English translation. opposites, peers, partners or match to Him.

These two honourable denominators, which were agreed upon between different nations and religions, and among the philosophers, however, after this position the difference between the dignitaries of different religions and philosophers erupted.  The truth is that Almighty denied Parenthood first, as if it was said: He did not give birth to minds (referring to philosophers’ false beliefs) and souls, and then he said: And the One who is the Originator of your bodies and souls and your world is not born from anything, so He has no father, no child, no force above Him but He is One and only, the Ultimate Truth the Glorified One.

 

Tafsir al-Kabeer (Mafateeh al-Ghaib) of Imam Fakhruddin Muhammad ibn Umar al-Raazi al-Shafe’i t D. 606 A.H.

 

Tafsir al-Qurtubi                                                                                                                         تفسیر القرطبی

قَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ: لَمْ يَلِدْ كَمَا وَلَدَتْ مَرْيَمُ، وَلَمْ يولد كما ولد عيس وَعُزَيْرٌ. وَهُوَ رَدٌّ عَلَى النَّصَارَى، وَعَلَى مَنْ قَالَ: عُزَيْرٌ ابْنُ اللَّهِ.

Sayyiduna Ibn ‘Abbas – may Allah be pleased with him – said, “He did not give birth; like Sayyidah Maryam – may Allah be pleased with her – did nor was He born; like Sayyiduna ‘Isa and ‘Uzair – peace be upon them.  It is the obliteration of the christian belief and the statement where they (jews) mentioned that Sayyiduna ‘Uzair – peace be upon him – is the son of Allah.

 

Tafsir Qurbuti (Al-Jame’ Li Ahkaam al-Quran) Imam Shamsuddin Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Qurtubi t D. 671 A.H.

 

Tafsir al-Baidawi                                                                                                                      تفسیر البیضاوی

رداً على من قال الملائكة بنات الله، أو المسيح ابن الله

It’s the obliteration of those who said that the angels are Allah’s daughters or Sayyiduna ‘Isa – peace be upon him – is the son of Allah.

 

Tafsir al-Baidawi (Anwaar al-Tanzeel wa Asraar al-Taweel) of Imam Qadhi Abdullah ibn Umar al-Shiraazi al-Baidawi t D. 685 A.H.

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