Download PDF:  S112 V001 Tafseer of Ahlus Sunnah تفسیر اھل السنۃ

قُلْ ہُوَ اللہُ اَحَدٌ ۚ﴿۱﴾

Proclaim, “He is Allah, He is One.”

 

Tafsir al-Tabari                                                             تفسیر الطبری

أَنَّ الْمُشْرِكِينَ سَأَلُوا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَنْ نَسَبِ رَبِّ الْعِزَّةِ، فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ هَذِهِ السُّورَةَ جَوَابًا لَهُمْ.

The polytheists asked the Holy Prophet – peace and blessings of Allah be upon him – about the lineage of the Almighty Lord, so Allah Almighty revealed this surah in their response.

 

عَنْ أُبَيِّ بْنِ كَعْبٍ، قَالَ: قَالَ الْمُشْرِكُونَ لِلنَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: انْسُبْ لَنَا رَبَّكَ، فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ: قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ اللَّهُ الصَّمَدُ

Sayyiduna Ubai ibn Ka’b – may Allah be pleased with him – is reported to have said: The polytheists said to the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him, “Please tell us about your Lord’s lineage, so Allah Almighty revealed Surah Al-Ikhlas.”

 

وَقَالَ بَعْضُهُمْ: بَلْ نَزَلَتْ مِنْ أَجْلِ أَنَّ الْيَهُودَ سَأَلُوهُ، فَقَالُوا لَهُ: هَذَا اللَّهُ خَلَقَ الْخَلْقَ، فَمَنْ خَلَقَ اللَّهَ فَأُنْزِلَتْ جَوَابًا لَهُمْ.

Some said that the reason for its revelation was rather the question of jews, they asked him, “If Allah created the entire creation then who created Allah?”  This Surah was revealed in their response.

 

Tafsir Al-Tabari (Tafsir Ibn Jareer / Jame’ al-Bayaan fi Taweel al-Quraan) of Imam Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Jareer al-Tabri t D. 310 A.H.

 

Tafsir al-Baghawi                                                        تفسیر البغوی

وَقَالَ الضَّحَّاكُ وَقَتَادَةُ وَمُقَاتِلٌ: جَاءَ نَاسٌ مِنْ أَحْبَارِ الْيَهُودِ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالُوا: صِفْ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يَا مُحَمَّدُ لَعَلَّنَا نُؤْمِنُ بِكَ، فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ أَنْزَلَ نَعْتَهُ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ، فَأَخْبِرْنَا مِنْ أَيِّ شَيْءٍ هُوَ وَهَلْ يَأْكُلُ وَيَشْرَبُ وَمَنْ يَرِثُ مِنْهُ فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ هَذِهِ السُّورَةَ

Sayyiduna Dhahhak, Qatadah and Muqatil – may Allah be pleased with them – said that a delegation of jewish rabbis came to the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – and said, “Describe your Lord to us, O Muhammad, so we could believe in you, for Allah Almighty has revealed His praises in Torah, so tell us what is He created from? Does he eat or drink?  Who are His heirs?”  Allah Almighty then revealed this Surah.

 

Tafsir al-Baghawi (Ma’aalim al-Tanzeel) of Muhiyy al-Sunnah Imam Abu Muhammad Al-Husain ibn Mas’ood al-Baghwi al-Shafe’I t D. 510 A.H.

 

Tafsir al-Kabeer                                                                                                 التفسیر الکبیر

رَوَى أُبَيٌّ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «مَنْ قَرَأَ سُورَةَ قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ، فَكَأَنَّمَا قَرَأَ ثُلُثَ الْقُرْآنِ وَأُعْطِيَ مِنَ الْأَجْرِ عَشْرَ حَسَنَاتٍ بِعَدَدِ مَنْ أَشَرَكَ بِاللَّهِ وَآمَنَ بِاللَّهِ

Sayyiduna Ubai – may Allah be pleased with him – reported that the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – has stated, “Whoever recites Surah Al-Ikhlas, it is as if he has recited one-third of the Holy Quran.  He is given virtues 10 times the combined number of all the polytheists and believers in Allah.”

 

وَقَالَ عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ: مَنْ قَرَأَ قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ مَرَّةً وَاحِدَةً أُعْطِيَ مِنَ الْأَجْرِ كَمَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَأُعْطِي مِنَ الْأَجْرِ مِثْلَ مِائَةِ شهيدا

The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – has stated, “One who recites Surah Al-Ikhlas once is given the virtues like that of the one who believes in Allah, His angels, His books and His Prophets, and he is also given the virtues of 100 martyrs.”

 

وَعَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ: جَاءَ رَجُلٌ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَشَكَا إِلَيْهِ الْفَقْرَ فَقَالَ: إِذَا دَخَلْتَ بَيْتَكَ فَسَلِّمْ إِنْ كَانَ فِيهِ أَحَدٌ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ فِيهِ أَحَدٌ فَسَلِّمْ عَلَى نَفْسِكَ، وَاقْرَأْ قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ مَرَّةً وَاحِدَةً فَفَعَلَ الرَّجُلُ فَأَدَرَّ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ رِزْقًا حَتَّى أَفَاضَ عَلَى جِيرَانِهِ

Sayyiduna Sahl ibn Sa’eed – may Allah be pleased with him – reported:  A man visited the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – and complained to him about poverty, so he said, “When you enter your house, pay Salam if there is anyone inside, and if there is no one inside then make Salam upon yourself and recite Surah Al-Ikhlas once.”  The man followed the instruction, so Allah Almighty bestowed upon him abundance of wealth, so much so that he even exceeded his neighbours (in wealth).”

 

وَعَنْ أَنَسٍ: أَنَّ رَجُلًا كَانَ يَقْرَأُ فِي جَمِيعِ صِلَاتِهِ: قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ فَسَأَلَهُ الرَّسُولُ عَنْ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنِّي أُحِبُّهَا، فَقَالَ: حُبُّكَ إِيَّاهَا يُدْخِلُكَ الْجَنَّةَ

Sayyiduna Anas – may Allah be pleased with him – narrated that there was a man who only recited Surah Al-Ikhlas in all his Salahs, so the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – asked him about it, and he replied, “O Allah’s Messenger, it’s because I love it.”  He then said, “Your love for it will enter you in paradise.”

 

فِي سَبَبِ نُزُولِهَا وَفِيهِ وُجُوهٌ:

الْأَوَّلُ : أَنَّهَا نَزَلَتْ بِسَبَبِ سُؤَالِ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

قَالَ الضَّحَّاكُ: إِنَّ الْمُشْرِكِينَ أَرْسَلُوا عَامِرَ بْنَ الطُّفَيْلِ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَقَالُوا: شَقَقْتَ عَصَانَا وَسَبَبْتَ آلِهَتَنَا، وَخَالَفْتَ دِينَ آبَائِكَ، فَإِنْ كُنْتَ فَقِيرًا أَغْنَيْنَاكَ، وَإِنْ كُنْتَ مَجْنُونًا دَاوَيْنَاكَ، وَإِنْ هَوَيْتَ امْرَأَةً زَوَّجْنَاكَهَا، فَقَالَ عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ: لَسْتُ بِفَقِيرٍ ولا مجنون ولا هويت المرأة، أَنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ أَدْعُوكُمْ مِنْ عِبَادَةِ الْأَصْنَامِ إِلَى عِبَادَتِهِ، فَأَرْسَلُوهُ ثَانِيَةً وَقَالُوا:قُلْ لَهُ بَيِّنْ لَنَا جِنْسَ مَعْبُودِكَ، أَمِنْ ذَهَبٍ أَوْ فِضَّةٍ، فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ هَذِهِ السُّورَةَ، فقالوا له: ثلاثمائة وَسِتُّونَ صَنَمًا لَا تَقُومُ بِحَوَائِجِنَا، فَكَيْفَ يَقُومُ الواحد بحوائج الخلق؟ فنزلت: وَالصَّافَّاتِ إِلَى قَوْلِهِ: إِنَّ إِلهَكُمْ لَواحِدٌ [الصَّافَّاتِ: 1- 4] فَأَرْسَلُوهُ أُخْرَى، وَقَالُوا: بَيِّنْ لَنَا أَفْعَالَهُ فَنَزَلَ: إِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّماواتِ وَالْأَرْضَ [الأعراف: 54]

 

الثانی: أَنَّهَا نَزَلَتْ بِسَبَبِ سُؤَالِ الْيَهُودِ

رَوَى عِكْرِمَةُ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ أَنَّ الْيَهُودَ جَاءُوا إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ وَمَعَهُمْ كَعْبُ بْنُ الْأَشْرَفِ، فَقَالُوا: يَا مُحَمَّدُ هَذَا اللَّهُ خَلَقَ الْخَلْقَ، فَمَنْ خَلَقَ اللَّهَ؟ فَغَضِبَ نَبِيُّ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ فَنَزَلَ جِبْرِيلُ فَسَكَّنَهُ وَقَالَ: اخْفِضْ جَنَاحَكَ يَا مُحَمَّدُ، فَنَزَلَ: قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ فَلَمَّا تَلَاهُ عَلَيْهِمْ قَالُوا: صِفْ لَنَا رَبَّكَ كَيْفَ عَضُدُهُ، وَكَيْفَ ذِرَاعُهُ؟ فَغَضِبَ أَشَدَّ مِنْ غَضَبِهِ الْأَوَّلِ، فَأَتَاهُ جِبْرِيلُ بِقَوْلِهِ: وَما قَدَرُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ قَدْرِهِ [الْأَنْعَامِ: 91]

 

الثالث: أَنَّهَا نَزَلَتْ بِسَبَبِ سُؤَالِ النَّصَارَى

رَوَى عَطَاءٌ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: قَدِمَ وَفْدُ نَجْرَانَ، فَقَالُوا: صِفْ لَنَا رَبَّكَ أَمِنْ زَبَرْجَدٍ أَوْ يَاقُوتٍ أَوْ ذَهَبٍ أَوْ فِضَّةٍ؟ فَقَالَ: إِنَّ رَبِّي لَيْسَ مِنْ شَيْءٍ لِأَنَّهُ خَالِقُ الْأَشْيَاءِ فَنَزَلَتْ: قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ قَالُوا: هُوَ وَاحِدٌ، وَأَنْتَ وَاحِدٌ، فَقَالَ: لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ، قَالُوا: زِدْنَا مِنَ الصِّفَةِ، فَقَالَ: اللَّهُ الصَّمَدُ فَقَالُوا: وَمَا الصَّمَدُ؟ فَقَالَ: الَّذِي يَصْمُدُ إِلَيْهِ الْخَلْقُ فِي الْحَوَائِجِ، فَقَالُوا: زِدْنَا فَنَزَلَ: لَمْ يَلِدْ كَمَا وَلَدَتْ مَرْيَمُ: وَلَمْ يُولَدْ كَمَا وُلِدَ عِيسَى: وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ كُفُواً أَحَدٌ يُرِيدُ نَظِيرًا مِنْ خَلْقِهِ.

It was revealed due to the following reasons:

  1. It was revealed in response to the questions of the polytheists.

 

Sayyiduna Dhahhak – may Allah be pleased with him – said:  The polytheists sent Amir ibn al-Tufail to the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – to represent them and instructed him to say, “You insulted and disobeyed us and insulted our gods and turned against the religion of your forefathers.  If you were poor we would make you rich, if you were mad we would take you for treatment and if you desired a woman we would get you married to her.”  The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – then replied, “I am neither poor nor am I mad, nor do I desire a woman.  I am the Messenger of Allah.  I call you to turn to Allah’s worship instead of worshipping the idols.”

 

They sent him the second time and instructed him to get answers of these questions, “Tell us about the matter, his God is made of; whether it’s made of silver of gold?”  Allah Almighty then revealed this Surah.

They then said to him, “If 360 gods are incapable of fulfilling our needs then how would one God be able fulfil the needs of entire creation?”  It was then the following verse was revealed:

اِنَّ اِلٰـہَکُمْ لَوٰحِدٌ ﴿ؕ۴﴾

Undoubtedly, your God is definitely One.

(Al-Saffat 37, Verse 4)

 

They sent him again and said, “Tell us about his actions.”  It was then this verse was revealed:

اِنَّ رَبَّکُمُ اللہُ الَّذِیۡ خَلَقَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالۡاَرْضَ

Undoubtedly, your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and earth.

(Yunus 10, Verse 3)

 

  1. It was revealed in response to the jews’ question.

 

Sayyiduna ‘Ikramah – may Allah be pleased with him – reported from Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas – may Allah be pleased with them – that the jews came to the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – accompanied by Ka’b ibn al-Ashraf and said, “O Muhammad, if Allah created the entire creation then who created Allah?”  The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – was enraged over it then Sayyiduna Jibreel – comforted him and said, “O Muhammad, keep your hands down.”  Allah Almighty then revealed Surah Al-Ikhlas.  When he recited it for them, they asked for Allah’s bodily description e.g. how are his limbs?”  The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – became even more furious than before, then Sayyiduna Jibreel – peace be upon him – came to him with the verse:

مَا قَدَرُوا اللہَ حَقَّ قَدْرِہٖ

They valued not Allah as He should be valued.

(Al-Hajj 22, Verse 74)

 

  1. It was revealed in response of christians’ question.

 

Sayyiduna ‘Ata reported from Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas – may Allah be pleased with them, he said, “A delegation of Najran came and said, “Describe you Lord to us; is he made of ruby, gold or silver?”  So, he (The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him) replied, “My Lord is not made from anything because He is indeed the Creator of all things.  It was then that the following verse was revealed:

قُلْ ہُوَ اللہُ اَحَدٌ ۚ﴿۱﴾

Proclaim, “He is Allah, He is One.”

(Al-Ikhlas 112, Verse 1)

 

They said, “(if) He is one then so are you.”  He replied, “There is nothing comparable to him.”  They said, “Reveal some more of His attributes to us.”  He then said:

اَللہُ الصَّمَدُ ۚ﴿۲﴾

“Allah the Independent, Care free.”

(Al-Ikhlas 112, Verse 2)

 

They asked, “What is Al-Samad?”  He replied, “He is the One the entire creation turns to in their needs.”  They said to enlighten them more and he said:

لَمْ یَلِدْ ۬ۙ وَ لَمْ یُوۡلَدْ ۙ﴿۳﴾

“He has no offspring” like (Sayyidah) Maryam (may Allah be pleased with her) gave birth, “nor is He born from anything” like (Sayyiduna) ‘Isa (peace be upon him) was born.

(Al-Ikhlas 112, Verse 3)

 

وَ لَمْ یَکُنۡ لَّہٗ کُفُوًا اَحَدٌ ٪﴿۴﴾

“And there is none equal to Him.”

(Al-Ikhlas 112, Verse 4)

He is unlike any of His creation.”

 

Names of Surah Al-Ikhlas:

أَحَدُهَا : سُورَةُ التَّفْرِيدِ

  1. Surah Al-Tafrid: i.e. the unique

 

وَثَانِيهَا: سُورَةُ التَّجْرِيدِ

  1. Surah Al-Tajrid: i.e. On its own, free from anything else

 

وَثَالِثُهَا: سُورَةُ التَّوْحِيدِ

  1. Surah Al-Tawhid: i.e. pure Islamic Monotheism

 

وَرَابِعُهَا: سُورَةُ الْإِخْلَاصِ

لِأَنَّهُ لَمْ يَذْكُرْ فِي هَذِهِ السُّورَةِ سِوَى صِفَاتِهِ السَّلْبِيَّةِ الَّتِي هِيَ صِفَاتُ الْجَلَالِ، وَلِأَنَّ مَنِ اعْتَقَدَهُ كَانَ مُخْلِصًا فِي دِينِ اللَّهِ، وَلِأَنَّ مَنْ مَاتَ عَلَيْهِ كَانَ خَلَاصَهُ مِنَ النَّارِ، وَلِأَنَّ مَا قَبْلَهُ خَلَصَ فِي ذَمِّ أَبِي لَهَبٍ فَكَانَ جَزَاءُ مَنْ قَرَأَهُ أَنْ لَا يُجْمَعَ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ أَبِي لَهَبٍ

  1. Surah Al-Ikhlas: i.e. sincere devotion to Allah

Because in this Surah:

  • He only mentioned the attribute qualities of negation and it is the attribute of Dignity.
  • The one who believes in it will be sincere in Allah’s religion.
  • The one who dies believing in it, will attain salvation from hellfire.
  • The reader just cursed Abu Lahab earlier (in Surah Lahab), so this Surah comes as a concluding remark that the one reading it, Allah Almighty will not unite him and Abu Lahab.

 

وَخَامِسُهَا: سُورَةُ النَّجَاةِ

لِأَنَّهَا تُنْجِيكَ عَنِ التَّشْبِيهِ وَالْكُفْرِ فِي الدُّنْيَا، وَعَنِ النَّارِ فِي الْآخِرَةِ

  1. Surah al-Najah: i.e. the salvation

For it frees you from likelihood and infidelity in the world, and in the hereafter, it will bring salvation from hellfire.

 

وَسَادِسُهَا: سُورَةُ الْوِلَايَةِ

لِأَنَّ مَنْ قَرَأَهَا صَارَ مِنْ أَوْلِيَاءِ اللَّهِ وَلِأَنَّ مَنْ عَرَفَ اللَّهَ عَلَى هَذَا الْوَجْهِ فَقَدْ وَالَاهُ فَبَعْدَ مِحْنَةٍ رَحْمَةٌ كَمَا بَعْدَ مِنْحَةٍ نِعْمَةٌ

  1. Surah al-Wilayah: e. protection

For the one who gains the recognition of Allah in this way, He will protect him, for after trial comes mercy, as every Mercy is followed by a blessing.

 

وَسَابِعُهَا: سُورَةُ النِّسْبَةِ

لِمَارُوِّينَا أَنَّهُ وَرَدَ جَوَابًا لِسُؤَالِ مَنْ قَالَ: انْسُبْ لَنَا رَبَّكَ، وَلِأَنَّهُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ قَالَ لِرَجُلٍ مِنْ بَنِي سُلَيْمٍ: «يَا أَخَا بَنِي سُلَيْمٍ اسْتَوْصِ بِنِسْبَةِ اللَّهِ خَيْرًا »

  1. Surah al-Nisbah: i.e. the connection with Allah

As we have related that it was revealed in response to the question about the lineage of the Almighty Lord.

 

The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – said to a man of Bani Sulaim tribe, “O the person of Bani Sulaim, adopt good connection with Allah.”

 

وَثَامِنُهَا:سُورَةُ الْمَعْرِفَةِ

لِأَنَّ مَعْرِفَةَ اللَّهِ لَا تَتِمُّ إِلَّا بِمَعْرِفَةِ هَذِهِ السُّورَةِ

رَوَى جَابِرٌ أَنَّ رَجُلًا صَلَّى فَقَرَأَ: قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ: إِنَّ هَذَا عَبْدٌ عَرَفَ رَبَّهُ فَسُمِّيَتْ سُورَةَ الْمَعْرِفَةِ لِذَلِكَ

  1. Surah al-Ma’refah: i.e. Gnosis of Allah

For the gnosis of Allah will not be achieved except by studying this Surah.

 

Sayyiduna Jabir – may Allah be pleased with him – reported that a man performed Salah and recited Surah al-Ikhlas, so the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – said, “Indeed this servant has achieved the recognition of Allah.”  It is for this reason that it was named Surah al-Ma’refah.

 

وَتَاسِعُهَا: سُورَةُ الْجَمَالِ

قَالَ عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ: «إِنَّ اللَّهَ جَمِيلٌ يُحِبُّ الْجَمَالَ» فَسَأَلُوهُ عَنْ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ: أَحَدٌ صَمَدٌ لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ

  1. Surah al-Jamal: i.e. the beauty

The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – has stated, “Indeed Allah Almighty is beautiful and loves beauty.”  They enquired about it, so he said, “He is One, the independent, He has no offspring nor is He born from anything.”

 

وَعَاشِرُهَا: سُورَةُ الْمُقَشْقِشَةِ

يُقَالُ: تقشيش الْمَرِيضُ مِمَّا بِهِ، فَمَنْ عَرَفَ هَذَا حَصَلَ لَهُ الْبُرْءُ مِنَ الشِّرْكَ وَالنِّفَاقِ لِأَنَّ النِّفَاقَ مَرَضٌ كَمَا قَالَ: فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ مَرَضٌ [الْبَقَرَةِ: 10]

  1. Surah al-Muqashqishah: i.e. the cure

It is said that the patient is disgusted by the disease he’s suffering from, so who knew this, got salvation from polytheism and hypocrisy because hypocrisy is a disease as the Almighty stated:

فِیۡ قُلُوۡبِہِمۡ مَّرَضٌ

In their heart is a disease.

(Al-Baqarah 2, Verse 10)

 

الْحَادِيَ عَشَرَ: الْمُعَوِّذَةُ

رُوِيَ أَنَّهُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ دَخَلَ عَلَى عُثْمَانَ بْنِ مَظْعُونَ فَعَوَّذَهُ بِهَا وَبِاللَّتَيْنِ بَعْدَهَا، ثُمَّ قَالَ: تَعَوَّذْ بِهِنَّ فَمَا تعوذت بخير منها

  1. Surah al-Mu’awwidhah: i.e. the refuge

It is narrated that the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – visited Sayyiduna ‘Uthman ibn Maz’oon – may Allah be pleased with him – and sought refuge for him with the two following Surahs after it (Surah Al-Falaq and Al-Naas) and then said, “Seek refuge from them, for you would not find anything better than this.”

 

 

والثاني عشر: سورة الصمد

لِأَنَّهَا مُخْتَصَّةٌ بِذِكْرِهِ تَعَالَى

  1. Surah Al-Samad: i.e. The One Who is absolutely independent

For it is especially dedicated to the remembrance of Allah Almighty.

 

وَالثَّالِثَ عَشَرَ: سُورَةُ الأساس

قال عليه الصلاة والسلام: «أسست السموات السبع والأرضون السبع على قل هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ» وَمِمَّا يَدُلُّ عَلَيْهِ أَنَّ القول بالثلاثة سبب لخراب السموات وَالْأَرْضِ بِدَلِيلِ قَوْلَهُ: تَكادُ السَّماواتُ يَتَفَطَّرْنَ مِنْهُ وَتَنْشَقُّ الْأَرْضُ وَتَخِرُّ الْجِبالُ [مَرْيَمَ: 90] فَوَجَبَ أَنْ يَكُونَ التَّوْحِيدُ سَبَبًا لِعِمَارَةِ هَذِهِ الْأَشْيَاءِ وَقِيلَ السَّبَبُ فِيهِ مَعْنَى قَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى: لَوْ كانَ فِيهِما آلِهَةٌ إِلَّا اللَّهُ لَفَسَدَتا [الْأَنْبِيَاءِ: 22]

  1. Surah Al-Asaas: i.e. the foundation

The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – has stated, “The 7 heavens and 7 planets are founded upon Surah Al-Ikhlas.”  English translation. This is evidenced by the fact that trinity is the cause of destruction of the heavens and earth evident from Allah’s words:

تَکَادُ السَّمٰوٰتُ یَتَفَطَّرْنَ مِنْہُ وَتَنۡشَقُّ الْاَرْضُ وَ تَخِرُّ الْجِبَالُ ہَدًّا ﴿ۙ۹۰﴾

It is near that the heavens may burst by it and the earth may crack down and the mountains fall down collapsed.

(Maryam 19, Verse 90)

Then it is definitely the Oneness of Allah, reason to uphold these things.

It is also said that the reason behind this are the words of Allah Almighty:

لَوْکَانَ فِیۡہِمَاۤ اٰلِہَۃٌ اِلَّا اللہُ لَفَسَدَتَا ۚ

If there had been gods besides Allah in the heavens and earth, then necessarily, they would have been ruined.

(Al-Anbiya 21, Verse 22)

 

الرَّابِعَ عَشَرَ: سُورَةُ الْمَانِعَةِ

رَوَى ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ أَنَّهُ تَعَالَى قَالَ: لِنَبِيِّهِ حِينَ عُرِجَ بِهِ أَعْطَيْتُكَ سُورَةَ الْإِخْلَاصِ وَهِيَ مِنْ ذَخَائِرِ كُنُوزِ عَرْشِي، وَهِيَ الْمَانِعَةُ تَمْنَعُ عَذَابَ الْقَبْرِ وَلَفَحَاتِ النِّيرَانِ

  1. Surah Al-Mane’ah: i.e. the preventer (of punishment in the grave)

Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas – may Allah be pleased with him – narrated that Allah Almighty said to His Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – when he had elevated him (in Me’raj), “I have granted you Surah Al-Ikhlas, and it is from the treasures of My ‘Arsh.  It is the preventer, and it prevents punishment of grave and hot blows of hell.”

 

الْخَامِسَ عَشَرَ: سُورَةُ الْمَحْضَرِ

لِأَنَّ الْمَلَائِكَةَ تَحْضُرُ لِاسْتِمَاعِهَا إِذَا قُرِئَتْ

  1. Surah Al-Mahdhar: i.e. the gatherer, for the angels gather to listen to its recitation.

 

السَّادِسَ عَشَرَ: الْمُنَفِّرَةُ

لِأَنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ يَنْفِرُ عِنْدَ قِرَاءَتِهَا

  1. Surah Al-Munaffirah: i.e. for the satan hates it when it is recited.

 

السَّابِعَ عَشَرَ: الْبَرَاءَةُ

لأنه روي أنه عليه السلام رأى رجل يَقْرَأُ هَذِهِ السُّورَةَ فَقَالَ: أَمَّا هَذَا فَقَدَ برىء مِنَ الشِّرْكِ،

وَقَالَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ: مَنْ قَرَأَ سُورَةَ قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ مِائَةَ مَرَّةٍ فِي صَلَاةٍ أَوْ فِي غَيْرِهَا كُتِبَتْ لَهُ بَرَاءَةٌ مِنَ النَّارِ

  1. Surah Al-Bara’ah: i.e. the salvation

For it is narrated that the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – saw a man reciting this Surah, so he said, “This man has attained salvation from polytheism.”

The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – has also stated, “One who recites Surah Al-Ikhlas 100 times in Salah or out of Salah, salvation from hell is destined for him.”

 

الثَّامِنَ عَشَرَ: سُورَةُ الْمُذَكِّرَةِ

لِأَنَّهَا تُذَكِّرُ الْعَبْدَ خَالِصَ التَّوْحِيدِ فَقِرَاءَةُ السُّورَةِ كَالْوَسْمَةِ تُذَكِّرُكَ مَا تَتَغَافَلُ عَنْهُ مِمَّا أَنْتَ مُحْتَاجٌ إِلَيْهِ

  1. Surah Al-Mudhakkirah: i.e. the reminder

For it reminds the devotee of pure Tawhid, and the recitation of this Surah works as a mark to remind you of what you are neglecting for what you need.

 

التَّاسِعَ عَشَرَ: سُورَةُ النُّورِ

قَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى: اللَّهُ نُورُ السَّماواتِ وَالْأَرْضِ [النُّورِ: 35] فهو المنور للسموات وَالْأَرْضِ، وَالسُّورَةُ تُنَوِّرُ قَلْبَكَ

وَقَالَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ: «إن كل شيء نور وَنُورُ الْقُرْآنِ قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ» وَنَظِيرُهُ أَنَّ نُورَ الْإِنْسَانِ فِي أَصْغَرِ أَعْضَائِهِ وَهُوَ الْحَدَقَةُ، فَصَارَتِ السُّورَةُ لِلْقُرْآنِ كَالْحَدَقَةِ لِلْإِنْسَانِ

  1. Surah Al-Noor: i.e. the light

Allah Almighty has stated:

اَللہُ نُوۡرُ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الْاَرْضِؕ

Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth.

(Al-Noor 24, Verse 35)

For He is the One who lights up the heavens and earth and this Surah will illuminate your heart.

The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – has stated, “Everything has light and the light of Quran is Surah Al-Ikhlas.”

To understand it by the example of human body– it is the iris, so this Surah acts as the iris of the Holy Quran.

 

الْعِشْرُونَ: سُورَةُ الْأَمَانِ

قَالَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ: «إِذَا قَالَ الْعَبْدُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ دَخَلَ حِصْنِي وَمَنْ دَخَلَ حِصْنِي أَمِنَ مِنْ عَذَابِي» .

  1. Surah Al-Aman: i.e. the safety

Hadeeth al-Qudsi:

The Holy Porphet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – has stated, “When the devotee says, ‘There is none worthy of worship but Allah’ he enters My fort, and the one who enters My fort has attained safety from My punishment.”

 

Tafsir al-Kabeer (Mafateeh al-Ghaib) of Imam Fakhruddin Muhammad ibn Umar al-Raazi al-Shafe’i t D. 606 A.H.

 

Tafsir al-Qurtubi                                                                                                                         تفسیر القرطبی

أَيِ الْوَاحِدُ الْوِتْرُ، الَّذِي لَا شَبِيهَ لَهُ، وَلَا نَظِيرَ وَلَا صَاحِبَةَ، وَلَا وَلَدَ وَلَا شَرِيكَ.

i.e. the One and Only, the One there is none like Him, He has no match, partner, child or associates.

 

Tafsir Qurtubi (Al-Jame’ Li Ahkaam al-Quran) Imam Shamsuddin Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Qurtubi t D. 671 A.H.

 

Tafsir al-Nasafi                                                                                                                                                      تفسیر النسفی

أن الله واحد لا ثاني له

Indeed, Allah Almighty is One, has none second to him.

 

Tafsir al-Nasafi (Madarik al-Tanzeel) of Imam Abul Barakaat Abdullah ibn Ahmed al-Nasafi t D. 710 A.H.

 

Tafsir al-Durr al-Manthoor                                                                              تفسیر الدر المنثور

وَأخرج أَبُو الشَّيْخ فِي العظمة وَأَبُو بكر السَّمرقَنْدِي فِي فَضَائِل {قل هُوَ الله أحد} عَن أنس رَضِي الله عَنهُ قَالَ: جَاءَت يهود خَيْبَر إِلَى النَّبِي صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم فَقَالُوا: يَا أَبَا الْقَاسِم خلق الله الْمَلَائِكَة من نور الْحجاب وآدَم من حمإ مسنون وإبليس من لَهب النَّار وَالسَّمَاء من دُخان وَالْأَرْض من زبد المَاء فَأخْبرنَا عَن رَبك فَلم يجبهم النَّبِي صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم فَأَتَاهُ جِبْرِيل بِهَذِهِ السُّورَة {قل هُوَ الله أحد} لَيْسَ لَهُ عروق تتشعب {الله الصَّمد} لَيْسَ بالأجوف لَا يَأْكُل وَلَا يشرب {لم يلد وَلم يُولد} لَيْسَ لَهُ وَالِد وَلَا ولد ينْسب إِلَيْهِ {وَلم يكن لَهُ كفوا أحد} لَيْسَ من خلقه شَيْء يعدل مَكَانَهُ يمسك السَّمَوَات إِن زالتا هَذِه السُّورَة لَيْسَ فِيهَا ذكر جنَّة وَلَا نَار وَلَا دنيا وَلَا آخِرَة وَلَا حَلَال وَلَا حرَام انتسب الله إِلَيْهَا فَهِيَ لَهُ خَالِصَة من قَرَأَهَا ثَلَاث مَرَّات عدل بِقِرَاءَة الْوَحْي كُله وَمن قَرَأَهَا ثَلَاثِينَ مرّة لم يفضله أحد من أهل الدُّنْيَا يَوْمئِذٍ إِلَّا من زَاد على مَا قَالَ وَمن قَرَأَهَا مِائَتي مرّة أسكن من الفودوس سكناً يرضاه وَمن قَرَأَهَا حِين يدْخل منزله ثَلَاث مَرَّات نفت عَن الْفقر ونفعت الْجَار وَكَانَ رجل يَقْرَأها فِي كل صَلَاة فكأنهم هزئوا بِهِ وعابوا ذَلِك عَلَيْهِ فَقَالُوا لرَسُول الله صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم فَقَالَ: وَمَا حملك على ذَلِك قَالَ يَا رَسُول الله: إِنِّي أحبها قَالَ: حبها أدْخلك الْجنَّة

Imam Abu al-Shaykh mentioned it in Al-‘Azmah and Imam Abu Bakr al-Samarqandi in the Fadhail of Surah al-Ikhlas from Sayyiduna Anas – may Allah be pleased with them:

The jews of Khaybar visited the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – and said, “O Aba al-Qasim, Allah Almighty created the angels from light, Sayyiduna Adam – peace be upon him – from black mud, Iblis from the flame of hell, the sky from smoke, the earth from water bubble, so tell us about you Lord.”  The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – did not respond to them – and then Sayyiduna Jibreel – peace be upon him – descended with this Surah:

قُلْ ہُوَ اللہُ اَحَدٌ ۚ﴿۱﴾

Proclaim, “He is Allah, He is One.”  i.e. He does not have veins spreading.

(Al-Ikhlas 112, Verse 1)

اَللہُ الصَّمَدُ ۚ﴿۲﴾

“Allah the Independent, Care free.” i.e. He does not have a stomach; He neither eats nor drinks.

(Al-Ikhlas 112, Verse 2)

لَمْ یَلِدْ ۬ۙ وَ لَمْ یُوۡلَدْ ۙ﴿۳﴾

“He has no offspring nor is He born from anything” i.e. He has father or son as a lineage.

(Al-Ikhlas 112, Verse 3)

وَ لَمْ یَکُنۡ لَّہٗ کُفُوًا اَحَدٌ ٪﴿۴﴾

“And there is none equal to Him.” i.e. there is none amongst creation that can be parallel to His station.  He stops the sky from falling.

(Al-Ikhlas 112, Verse 4)

The paradise and hell are not mentioned in this Surah.  Neither the world nor the hereafter or lawful and unlawful are mentioned.  It is purely attributed to Allah alone.  One who recites it three times, it is as if he has recited the entire Quran.  One who recites it 200 times, will get an abode of his choice in Jannat al-Firdaus.  One who recites it thrice upon entering the house, poverty will be eliminated from him and even his neighbours will benefit.”

There was a man who used to recite it in every Salah, and they used to ridicule him and belittle him due to this.  They related it to Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him, so he said, “What has motivated you to do so?”  He replied, “O Allah’s Messenger, it is because I love it.”  He said, “Your love for it will enter you into paradise.”  (The narrator says) that the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – spent the whole night reciting it repeatedly until the next morning.

 

وَأخرج ابْن أبي حَاتِم وَالطَّبَرَانِيّ وَأَبُو نعيم فِي الْحِلْية من طَرِيق مُحَمَّد بن حَمْزَة بن يُوسُف بن عبد الله بن سَلام أَن عبد الله بن سَلام رَضِي الله عَنهُ قَالَ لأحبار الْيَهُود: إِنِّي أردْت أَن أحدث بِمَسْجِد أَبينَا إِبْرَاهِيم عهدا فَانْطَلق إِلَى رَسُول الله صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم وَهُوَ بِمَكَّة فوافاه بمنى وَالنَّاس حوله فَقَامَ مَعَ النَّاس فَلَمَّا نظر إِلَيْهِ رَسُول الله صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم قَالَ لَهُ: أَنْت عبد الله بن سَلام قَالَ: نعم قَالَ: أدن فَدَنَا مِنْهُ فَقَالَ: أنْشدك بِاللَّه أما تجدني فِي التَّوْرَاة رَسُول الله فَقَالَ لَهُ: أَنعَت لنا رَبك فجَاء جِبْرِيل فَقَالَ {قل هُوَ الله أحد} إِلَى آخر السُّورَة فقرأها رَسُول الله صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم فَقَالَ ابْن سَلام: أشهد أَن لَا إِلَه إِلَّا الله وَأشْهد أَنَّك رَسُول الله ثمَّ انْصَرف إِلَى الْمَدِينَة وكتم إِسْلَامه

Imam Ibn Abi Hatim, Tabrani and Abu Nu’aim mentioned it in Hilyah with the chain of Sayyiduna Muhammad ibn Hamzah ibn Yusuf ibn Abdullah ibn Salam – may Allah be pleased with them.  Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Salam – may Allah be pleased with him – said to the jewish rabbis, “I have decided to take an oath in the Mosque of our father Sayyiduna Ibrahim – peace be upon him.  He went to the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – while he was in Makkah.  He found him at Mina surrounded by people.  When the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – looked towards him, he said to him, “Are you Abdullah ibn Salam?”  “Yes”, he replied.  He said, “Come closer”, so he got closer then he said, “I give you the oath of Allah, do you not find the declaration about me as the Messenger of Allah in Torah?”  Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Salam – may Allah be pleased with him – said, “Tell me about the attributes of your Lord?”  Sayyiduna Jibreel – peace be upon him – came and read Surah Al-Ikhlas, so the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – recited it to him.  Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Salam said, “I testify that there is none worthy of worship but Allah and I testify that indeed you are the Messenger of Allah.”  He then returned to Madinah Munawwarah but kept his Islam secret.

 

وَأخرج ابْن الضريس وَالْبَزَّار وسمويه فِي قوائده وَالْبَيْهَقِيّ فِي شعب الإِيمان عَن أنس أَن النَّبِي صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم قَالَ: من قَرَأَ {قل هُوَ الله اُحْدُ} مِائَتي مرّة غفر لَهُ ذنُوب مِائَتي سنة

Imam Dharees, Bazzar, and Samwaih mentioned in his Fawaid, and Baihaqi in Shu’ab al-Iman from Sayyiduna Anas – may Allah be pleased with them – that the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – said, “One who recites Surah Al-Ikhlas 200 times, his 200 years of sins will be forgiven.”

 

وَأخرج التِّرْمِذِيّ وَأَبُو يعلى وَمُحَمّد بن نصر وَابْن عدي وَالْبَيْهَقِيّ فِي الشّعب وَاللَّفْظ لَهُ عَن أنس رَضِي الله عَنهُ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُول الله صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم: من قَرَأَ كل يَوْم مِائَتي مرّة {قل هُوَ الله أحد} كتب الله لَهُ ألفا وَخَمْسمِائة حَسَنَة ومحا عَنهُ ذنُوب خمسين سنة إِلَّا أَن يكون عَلَيْهِ دين

Imam Tirmidhi, Abu Laila, Muhammad ibn Nasr, Ibn ‘Adi, and Baihaqi mentioned in Shu’ab al-Iman, these are his words, from Sayyiduna Anas – may Allah be pleased with them – that the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – has stated, “One who recites Surah Al-Ikhlas 200 times daily, Allah Almighty writes 1,500 good deeds in his account and erases 50 years of his sins except what he owed to anyone.”

 

وَأخرج أَيْضا عَن ابْن عمر قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُول الله صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم: من قَرَأَ {قل هُوَ الله أحد} فَكَأَنَّمَا قَرَأَ ثلث الْقُرْآن وَمن قَرَأَ {قل هُوَ الله أحد} مرَّتَيْنِ فَكَأَنَّمَا قَرَأَ ثُلثي الْقُرْآن وَمن قَرَأَ {قل هُوَ الله أحد} ثَلَاث مَرَّات فَكَأَنَّمَا قَرَأَ جَمِيع مَا أنزل الله

(Same reference as above) Sayyiduna Ibn ‘Umar – may Allah be pleased with them – is reported to have said:  The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – has stated, “One who recites Surah Al-Ikhlas is as if he has recited one-third of the Holy Quran, and the one who recites it twice is as if he has recited two-thirds of the Holy Quran, and the one who recites it thrice, it is as if he has recited the entire Quran.”

 

وَأخرج أَيْضا من طَرِيق نعيم عَن أنس عَن النَّبِي صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم قَالَ: من قَرَأَ {قل هُوَ الله أحد} ثَلَاثِينَ مرّة كتب الله لَهُ بَرَاءَة من النَّار وأماناً من الْعَذَاب والأمان يَوْم الْفَزع الْأَكْبَر

(Same reference as above) From the chain of Imam Nu’aim, from Sayyiduna Anas – may Allah be pleased with them – reports from the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – to have said, “One who recites Surah Al-Ikhlas 30 times, Allah Almighty decrees his salvation from hell and safety from punishment and safety from the greatest panic.”

 

وَأخرج ابْن الضريس عَن أنس قَالَ: قَالَ رجل لرَسُول الله صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم: إِن لي أَخا قد حبب إِلَيْهِ قِرَاءَة {قل هُوَ الله أحد} فَقَالَ: بشر أَخَاك بِالْجنَّةِ

Imam Ibn Dharees reported from Sayyiduna Anas – may Allah be pleased with him:  A man said to Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him, “I have a brother who loves to recite Surah Al-Ikhlas.”  He said, “Give your brother the glad tiding of paradise.”

 

Tafsir Al-Durr al-Manthoor Bi al-Tafsir al-Mathoor of Imam Jalaaluddin Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr al-Suyooti al-Shafe’i t D. 911 A.H.

Advertisements