Download PDF:  S111 V001 Tafseer of Ahlus Sunnah تفسیر اھل السنۃ

تَبَّتْ یَدَاۤ اَبِیۡ لَہَبٍ وَّ تَبَّ ؕ﴿۱﴾

May both the hands of Abu Lahab be destroyed – and he is destroyed!

 

Tafsir al-Tabari                                                             تفسیر الطبری

دُعَاءٌ عَلَيْهِ مِنَ اللَّهِ.

It is Allah’s curse upon him.

 

عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ: لَمَّا نَزَلَتْ {وَأَنْذِرْ عَشِيرَتَكَ الْأَقْرَبِينَ} [الشعراء: 214] قَامَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَلَى الصَّفَا ثُمَّ نَادَى: «يَا صَبَاحَاهُ» فَاجْتَمَعَ النَّاسُ إِلَيْهِ، فَبَيْنَ رَجُلٍ يَجِيءُ، وَبَيْنَ آخَرَ يَبْعَثُ رَسُولَهُ، فَقَالَ: «يَا بَنِي هَاشِمٍ، يَا بَنِي عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ، يَا بَنِي فِهْرٍ، يَا بَنِي. يَا بَنِي أَرَأَيْتَكُمْ لَوْ أَخْبَرْتُكُمْ أَنَّ خَيْلًا بِسَفْحِ هَذَا الْجَبَلِ» يُرِيدُ تُغِيرُ عَلَيْكُمْ «صَدَّقْتُمُونِي؟» قَالُوا: نَعَمْ، قَالَ: «فَإِنِّي نَذِيرٌ لَكُمْ بَيْنَ يَدَيْ عَذَابٍ شَدِيدٍ» فَقَالَ أَبُو لَهَبٍ: تَبًّا لَكَ سَائِرَ الْيَوْمِ، أَلِهَذَا دَعَوْتَنَا؟ فَنَزَلَتْ: تَبَّتْ يَدَا أَبِي لَهَبٍ وَتَبَّ

Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas – may Allah be pleased with him – is reported to have said:  When the following verse was revealed:

وَ اَنۡذِرْ عَشِیۡرَتَکَ الْاَقْرَبِیۡنَ ﴿۲۱۴﴾ۙ

And O beloved, warn your nearest kinsmen.

(Al-Su’ara 26, Verse 214)

The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – stood on Safa (mountain) and called people, so the people gathered by him.  Amongst the people who attended, there were some who sent someone on their behalf.  He said, “O the tribe of Hashim, Abdul Muttalib, Fehr and tribes!  Would you believe me if I were to inform you that there are horsemen behind this mountain?”  i.e. if they were coming to attack you.  They replied, “Yes.”  He said, “I warn you of the impending torment.”  Abu Lahab said, “May you be ruined!  Is this what you have called us for?!”  It was then this Surah was revealed.

 

Tafsir Al-Tabari (Tafsir Ibn Jareer / Jame’ al-Bayaan fi Taweel al-Quraan) of Imam Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Jareer al-Tabri t D. 310 A.H.

 

Tafsir al-Baghawi                                                        تفسیر البغوی

وَأَبُو لَهَبٍ: هُوَ ابْنُ عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ عم النبي صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أوَاسْمُهُ عَبْدُ الْعُزَّى.

قَالَ مُقَاتِلٌ: كُنِّيَ بِأَبِي لَهَبٍ لِحُسْنِهِ وَإِشْرَاقِ وَجْهِهِ.

Abu Lahab is Sayyiduna Abdul Muttalib’s son, uncle of the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him.  His name was Abdul ‘uzza.

Sayyiduna Muqatil – may Allah be pleased with him – said: His nickname was Abu Lahab due to his good looks and radiant face.

 

Tafsir al-Baghawi (Ma’aalim al-Tanzeel) of Muhiyy al-Sunnah Imam Abu Muhammad Al-Husain ibn Mas’ood al-Baghwi al-Shafe’I t D. 510 A.H.

 

Tafsir al-Kabeer                                                                                                 التفسیر الکبیر

قَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ: كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ يَكْتُمُ أَمْرَهُ فِي أَوَّلِ الْمَبْعَثِ وَيُصَلِّي فِي شِعَابِ مَكَّةَ ثَلَاثَ سِنِينَ إِلَى أَنْ نَزَلَ قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى: وَأَنْذِرْ عَشِيرَتَكَ الْأَقْرَبِينَ [الشُّعَرَاءِ: 214] فَصَعِدَ الصَّفَا وَنَادَى يَا آلَ غَالِبٍ فَخَرَجَتْ إِلَيْهِ غَالِبٌ مِنَ الْمَسْجِدِ فَقَالَ أَبُو لَهَبٍ: هَذِهِ غَالِبٌ قَدْ أَتَتْكَ فَمَا عِنْدَكَ؟ ثُمَّ نَادَى يَا آلَ لُؤَيٍّ فَرَجَعَ مَنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ مِنْ لُؤَيٍّ فَقَالَ أَبُو لَهَبٍ: هَذِهِ لُؤَيٌّ قَدْ أَتَتْكَ فَمَا عِنْدَكَ؟ ثُمَّ قَالَ: يَا آلَ مُرَّةَ فَرَجَعَ مَنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ مِنْ مُرَّةَ، فَقَالَ أَبُو لَهَبٍ: هَذِهِ مُرَّةُ قَدْ أَتَتْكَ فَمَا عِنْدَكَ؟ ثُمَّ قَالَ يَا آلَ كِلَابٍ، ثُمَّ قَالَ بَعْدَهُ: يَا آلَ قُصَيٍّ، فَقَالَ أَبُو لَهَبٍ: هَذِهِ قُصَيٌّ قَدْ أَتَتْكَ فَمَا عِنْدَكَ؟ فَقَالَ: إِنَّ اللَّهَ أَمَرَنِي أَنْ أُنْذِرَ عَشِيرَتِي الْأَقْرَبِينَ وَأَنْتُمُ الْأَقْرَبُونَ، اعْلَمُوا أَنِّي لَا أَمْلِكُ لَكُمْ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا حَظًّا وَلَا مِنَ الْآخِرَةِ نَصِيبًا إِلَّا أَنْ تَقُولُوا لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ فَأَشْهَدُ بِهَا لَكُمْ عِنْدَ رَبِّكُمْ فَقَالَ أَبُو لَهَبٍ عِنْدَ ذَلِكَ: تَبًّا لَكَ أَلِهَذَا دَعَوْتَنَا، فَنَزَلَتِ السُّورَةُ

Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas – may Allah be pleased with him – said: The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – used to hide his Prophethood in the beginning and prayed Salah in the valleys of Makkah for three years until the following Command of Allah was revealed:

وَ اَنۡذِرْ عَشِیۡرَتَکَ الْاَقْرَبِیۡنَ ﴿۲۱۴﴾ۙ

And O beloved, warn your nearest kinsmen.

(Al-Su’ara 26, Verse 214)

He climbed the Safa mountain and called the tribe of Ghalib so the tribe of Ghalib came out of the mosque and gathered by him.  Abu Lahab said, “Here are the Ghalibs by you, so what do you have to say?”  He then called the tribe of Lu’ai, so everyone who did not belong to the lineage of Lu’ai returned.  Abu Lahab said, “Here are the Lu’ai’s by you, so what do you have to say?”  He then called the tribe of Murrah, so everyone who did not belong to the lineage of Murrah returned.  Abu Lahab said, “Here are the Murrahs by you, so what do you have to say?”  He then called the tribe of Kilaab, so everyone who did not belong to the lineage of Likaab returned.  Abu Lahab said, “Here are the Kilabs by you, so what do you have to say?”  He then called, “O Qusay.”  Abu Lahab said, “Here are the Qusay’s by you, so what do you have to say?”  The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – then said, “Allah Almighty has commanded me to warn my nearest kinsmen, and you are the closest ones that I have.  Know that Indeed I do not have any control of any part of your worldly affairs neither do I have any authority in the hereafter unless you testify that there is none worthy of worship besides Allah, then I will bear witness by your Lord on your behalf.”  Abu Lahab said at that point, “May you be ruined!  Is this what you called us for?!”  This Surah was then revealed.

 

أَنَّهُ جَمَعَ أَعْمَامَهُ وَقَدَّمَ إِلَيْهِمْ طَعَامًا فِي صَحْفَةٍ فَاسْتَحْقَرُوهُ وَقَالُوا: إِنَّ أَحَدَنَا يَأْكُلُ كُلَّ الشَّاةِ، فَقَالَ: كُلُوا فَأَكَلُوا حَتَّى شَبِعُوا وَلَمْ يَنْقُصْ مِنَ الطَّعَامِ إِلَّا الْيَسِيرُ، ثُمَّ قَالُوا: فَمَا عِنْدَكَ؟ فَدَعَاهُمْ إِلَى الْإِسْلَامِ فَقَالَ أَبُو لَهَبٍ مَا قَالَ

The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – gathered his uncles and served them food on a plate, so they ridiculed him and said, “Each one of us eats a whole sheep.”  He said, “Please eat” and they ate and got satisfied while the food did not decrease but a little.  They then said, “What do you have to say?”  He invited them towards Islam, so Abu Lahab said what he had to say.

 

وَرُوِيَ أَنَّهُ قَالَ أَبُو لَهَبٍ: فَمَا لِي إِنْ أَسْلَمْتُ فَقَالَ: مَا لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ، فَقَالَ: أَفَلَا أُفَضَّلُ عَلَيْهِمْ؟ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ بِمَاذَا تُفَضَّلُ؟ فَقَالَ: تَبًّا لِهَذَا الدِّينِ يَسْتَوِي فِيهِ أَنَا وَغَيْرِي

It is narrated that Abu Lahab said, “What’s in it for me if I embrace Islam?”  He replied, “As it is for all Muslims.”  “Will I not be favoured over them?” said Abu Lahab.  The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – said, “Why would you get special treatment?!”  He then said, “May this religion be ruined in which others are I are equal!”

 

كَانَ إِذَا وَفَدَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ وَفْدٌ سَأَلُوا عَمَّهُ عَنْهُ وَقَالُوا: أَنْتَ أَعْلَمُ بِهِ فَيَقُولُ لَهُمْ: إِنَّهُ سَاحِرٌ فَيَرْجِعُونَ عَنْهُ وَلَا يَلْقَوْنَهُ، فَأَتَاهُ وَفْدٌ فَقَالَ لَهُمْ مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ فَقَالُوا: لَا نَنْصَرِفُ حَتَّى نَرَاهُ فَقَالَ: إِنَّا لَمْ نَزَلْ نُعَالِجُهُ مِنَ الْجُنُونِ فَتَبًّا لَهُ وَتَعْسًا، فَأُخْبِرَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِذَلِكَ فَحَزِنَ وَنَزَلَتِ السورة.

Whenever a delegation came to visit the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him, they would enquire his uncle about him and thinking he would know about him.  So he would say to them, “Indeed he is a magician.” and they would return without meeting him.  Once a delegation came and he told them the same, so they said, “We will not return without seeing him,” so he said, “We have been treating him for his insanity, he’s ruined and miserable.”  When the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – was informed about it, he became sad then this Surah was revealed.

 

Tafsir al-Kabeer (Mafateeh al-Ghaib) of Imam Fakhruddin Muhammad ibn Umar al-Raazi al-Shafe’i t D. 606 A.H.

 

Tafsir al-Qurtubi                                                                                                                         تفسیر القرطبی

فِي الصَّحِيحَيْنِ وَغَيْرِهِمَا (وَاللَّفْظُ لِمُسْلِمٍ) عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: لما نزلت وَأَنْذِرْ عَشِيرَتَكَ الْأَقْرَبِينَ  [الشعراء: 214] وَرَهْطَكَ مِنْهُمُ الْمُخْلِصِينَ ، خَرَجَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ حَتَّى صَعِدَ الصَّفَا، فَهَتَفَ: يَا صَبَاحَاهُ! فَقَالُوا: مَنْ هَذَا الَّذِي يَهْتِفُ؟ قَالُوا مُحَمَّدٌ. فَاجْتَمَعُوا إِلَيْهِ. فَقَالَ: [يَا بَنِي فُلَانٍ، يَا بَنِي فُلَانٍ، يَا بَنِي فُلَانٍ، يَا بَنِي عَبْدِ مَنَافٍ، يَا بَنِي عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ! [فَاجْتَمَعُوا إِلَيْهِ. فَقَالَ: [أَرَأَيْتُكُمْ لَوْ أَخْبَرْتُكُمْ أَنَّ خَيْلًا تَخْرُجُ بِسَفْحِ هَذَا الْجَبَلِ أَكُنْتُمْ مُصَدِّقِيَّ [قَالُوا: مَا جَرَّبْنَا عَلَيْكَ كَذِبًا. قَالَ: [فَإِنِّي نَذِيرٌ لَكُمْ بَيْنَ يَدَيْ عَذَابٍ شَدِيدٍ [. فَقَالَ أَبُو لَهَبٍ: تَبًّا لَكَ!، أَمَا جَمَعْتَنَا إِلَّا لِهَذَا! ثُمَّ قَامَ، فَنَزَلَتْ هَذِهِ السُّورَةُ: تَبَّتْ يَدَا أَبِي لَهَبٍ وَقَدْ تَبَّ كَذَا قَرَأَ الْأَعْمَشُ إِلَى آخِرِ السُّورَةِ. زَادَ الْحُمَيْدِيُّ وَغَيْرُهُ: فَلَمَّا سَمِعَتِ امْرَأَتُهُ مَا نَزَلَ فِي زَوْجِهَا وَفِيهَا مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ، أَتَتْ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَهُوَ جَالِسٌ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ عِنْدَ الْكَعْبَةِ، وَمَعَهُ أَبُو بَكْرٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ، وَفِي يَدِهَا فِهْرٌ  مِنْ حِجَارَةٍ، فَلَمَّا وَقَفَتْ عَلَيْهِ أَخَذَ اللَّهُ بَصَرَهَا عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، فلا تَرَى إِلَّا أَبَا بَكْرٍ. فَقَالَتْ: يَا أَبَا بَكْرٍ، إِنَّ صَاحِبَكَ قَدْ بَلَغَنِي أَنَّهُ يَهْجُونِي، وَاللَّهِ لَوْ وَجَدْتُهُ لَضَرَبْتُ بِهَذَا الْفِهْرِ فَاهُ۔۔۔

ثُمَّ انْصَرَفَتْ. فَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، أَمَا تَرَاهَا رَأَتْكَ قَالَ: [مَا رَأَتْنِي، لَقَدْ أَخَذَ اللَّهُ بَصَرَهَا عَنِّي [. وَكَانَتْ قُرَيْشٌ إِنَّمَا تُسَمِّي رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مُذَمَّمًا، يَسُبُّونَهُ، وَكَانَ يَقُولُ: [أَلَا تَعْجَبُونَ لِمَا صَرَفَ اللَّهُ عَنِّي مِنْ أَذَى قُرَيْشٍ، يَسُبُّونَ وَيَهْجُونَ مُذَمَّمًا وَأَنَا مُحَمَّدٌ[

It’s mentioned in Sahih Bukhari and Musim and other books (Muslim’s wording) from Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas – may Allah be pleased with him, he said:  When the following verse was revealed:

وَ اَنۡذِرْ عَشِیۡرَتَکَ الْاَقْرَبِیۡنَ ﴿۲۱۴﴾ۙ

And O beloved, warn your nearest kinsmen.

(Al-Su’ara 26, Verse 214)

The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – came out of the house and climbed the Safa mountain and called, “Ya Sahaba!”  People asked, “Who is this caller?”  People said, “It’s Muhammad (may Allah send peace and blessings upon him).”  When people gathered by him, he said, “O tribes, O ‘Abd Manaaf tribe, O ‘Abdul Muttalib’s tribe!”  They all gathered by him.  He said, “Tell me, if I were to tell you that a group of horsemen will emerge from behind this mountain, will you believe me?”  They all said, “We never knew you as a liar.”  He said, “I warn you about the impending torment.”  Abu Lahad said, “May you be ruined!  Is this what you have called us for?!”  He got up and then this Surah was revealed.

A’mash has narrated till here but Humaidi and other scholars have added upon it, “When his wife heard that the Quranic (verses) have been revealed about her husband, she came to the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – while he was seated in the Masjid (al-Haraam) by the Holy Ka’bah accompanied by Sayyiduna Abu Bakr al-Siddeeq – may Allah be pleased with him, she held a stone in her hand.  When she stood by the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – Allah Almighty blinded her and she could not see the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him.  She could only see Sayyiduna Abu Bakr al-Siddeeq – may Allah be pleased with him.  She said, “O Abu Bakr, I have heard that your friend talks bad about me.  I swear by Allah, if I find him I would hit this stone on his face.”  She then left.

Sayyiduna Abu Bakr – may Allah be pleased with him – said, “O Allah’s Messenger, did you not see that she spotted you?”  He said, “She did not see me.  Allah Almighty blocked her vision of me.”

The Quraish called the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and belssings upon him – Mudhammam.  They used this to despise him.  The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – used to say, “Do you not wonder how Allah Almighty has saved me from the mischief of polytheists?  They swear Mudhammam and speak ill of him while I am Muhammad.”

 

وَقِيلَ: إِنَّ أَبَا لَهَبٍ أَرَادَ أَنْ يَرْمِيَ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِحَجَرٍ، فَمَنَعَهُ اللَّهُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ، وَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى: تَبَّتْ يَدا أَبِي لَهَبٍ وَتَبَّ .

It is said that Abu Lahab wanted to throw stone at the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him, so Allah Almighty stopped him from doing so and revealed Surah Lahab.

 

وَأَبُو لَهَبٍ اسْمُهُ عَبْدُ الْعُزَّى، وَهُوَ ابْنُ عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ عَمُّ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ. وَامْرَأَتُهُ الْعَوْرَاءُ أُمُّ جَمِيلٍ، أُخْتُ أَبِي سُفْيَانَ بْنِ حَرْبٍ، وَكِلَاهُمَا، كَانَ شَدِيدَ الْعَدَاوَةِ لِلنَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ.

Abu Lahab’s name is Abdul ‘uzza, and he was Sayyiduna Abdul Muttalib’s – may Allah be pleased with him – son, uncle of the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him.  Umm Jameel was his one-eyed wife, sister of Sayyiduna Abu Sufyan ibn Harb – may Allah be pleased with him.  Both were extreme enemies of the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him.  (Sayyiduna Abu Sufyan – may Allah be pleased with him – embraced Islam at a later stage)

 

قَالَ طَارِقُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الْمُحَارِبِيُّ: إِنِّي بِسُوقِ ذِي الْمَجَازِ، إِذْ أَنَا بِإِنْسَانٍ يَقُولُ: [يا أيها النَّاسُ، قُولُوا لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ تُفْلِحُوا [، وَإِذَا رَجُلٌ خَلْفَهُ يَرْمِيهِ، قَدْ أَدْمَى سَاقَيْهِ وعرقوبيه ويقول: يا أيها النَّاسُ، إِنَّهُ كَذَّابٌ فَلَا تُصَدِّقُوهُ. فَقُلْتُ مَنْ هَذَا فَقَالُوا: مُحَمَّدٌ، زَعَمَ أَنَّهُ نَبِيٌّ. وَهَذَا عَمُّهُ أَبُو لَهَبٍ يَزْعُمُ أَنَّهُ كَذَّابٌ.

Sayyiduna Tariq ibn Abdullah al-Muharibi – may Allah be pleased with him – said:  I was by Dhul Majaz market when I heard a man saying, “O people, say ‘There is none worthy of worship but Allah’ and you shall attain salvation.”  There was a man behind him, throwing stones at him.  He injured his calves and ankles and says, “O people, he is a liar, do not believe him.”  I asked, “Who is this person, inviting people?”  They replied, “He is Muhammad (may Allah send peace and blessings upon him).  He thinks he is a Prophet.  This is his uncle Abu Lahab who thinks he is a liar.”

 

سُمِّيَ بِاللَّهَبِ لِحُسْنِهِ، وَإِشْرَاقِ وَجْهِهِ. وَقَدْ ظَنَّ قَوْمٌ أَنَّ فِي هَذَا دَلِيلًا عَلَى تَكْنِيَةِ الْمُشْرِكِ، وَهُوَ بَاطِلٌ

وَإِنَّمَا كَنَّاهُ اللَّهُ بِأَبِي لَهَبٍ- عِنْدَ الْعُلَمَاءِ- لِمَعَانٍ أَرْبَعَةٍ:

الْأَوَّلُ: أَنَّهُ كَانَ اسْمُهُ عَبْدُ الْعُزَّى، وَالْعُزَّى: صَنَمٌ، وَلَمْ يُضِفِ اللَّهُ فِي كِتَابِهِ الْعُبُودِيَّةَ إِلَى صَنَمٍ.

الثَّانِي: أَنَّهُ كَانَ بِكُنْيَتِهِ أَشْهَرَ مِنْهُ بِاسْمِهِ، فَصَرَّحَ بِهَا.

الثَّالِثُ: أَنَّ الِاسْمَ أَشْرَفُ مِنَ الْكُنْيَةِ، فَحَطَّهُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَنِ الْأَشْرَفِ إِلَى الْأَنْقَصِ

الرابع- أن اللَّهَ تَعَالَى أَرَادَ أَنْ يُحَقِّقَ نِسْبَتَهُ، بِأَنْ يُدْخِلَهُ النَّارَ، فَيَكُونَ أَبًا لَهَا

He was called Abu Lahab due to his good looks and radiant face, and there is a group of people who opine that it is suitable to mention a disbeliever by his nickname, which is invalid.

In the scholarly opinion, there are four reasons due to which Allah Almighty called him Abu Lahab:

  1. His name was Abdul ‘uzza. ‘uzza is an idol, and Allah Almighty would not feature an idol in His Book of Devotion.
  2. He was more famous by his nickname than his actual name itself, hence He described him by that.
  3. Indeed, the name is more significant than the nickname, therefore Allah Almighty reduced him from being significant to insignificant.
  4. Allah Almighty ordained to establish his link to hell, therefore he was named as “the one deserving hell”.

 

قَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ: لَمَّا خَلَقَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ الْقَلَمَ قَالَ لَهُ: اكْتُبْ مَا هُوَ كَائِنٌ، وَكَانَ فِيمَا كَتَبَ تَبَّتْ يَدا أَبِي لَهَبٍ.

Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas – may Allah be pleased with him – said:  When Allah Almighty created the pen, He commanded it, “Write whatever is to transpire” and “May both the hands of Abu Lahab be destroyed” was part of what it wrote.

 

Tafsir Qurtubi (Al-Jame’ Li Ahkaam al-Quran) Imam Shamsuddin Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Qurtubi t D. 671 A.H.

 

Tafsir al-Nasafi                                                                                                                                                      تفسیر النسفی

والمعنى هلكت يداه لأنه فيما يروى أخذ حجرا ليرمي به رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم {وَتَبَّ} وهلك كله

i.e. ‘May both the hands of Abu Lahab be destroyed’, for it is narrated that he had taken stone in his hand to throw at the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him, “and he is destroyed!” i.e. thus, he was completely destroyed.

 

Tafsir al-Nasafi (Madarik al-Tanzeel) of Imam Abul Barakaat Abdullah ibn Ahmed al-Nasafi t D. 710 A.H.

 

Tafsir al-Jalalain                                                                                                                        تفسیر الجلالین

{لَمَّا دَعَا النَّبِيّ صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَوْمه وَقَالَ إِنِّي نَذِير لَكُمْ بَيْن يَدَيْ عَذَاب شَدِيد فَقَالَ عَمّه أَبُو لَهَب تَبًّا لك ألهذا دعوتنا نزل {تَبَّتْ} خَسِرَتْ {يَدَا أَبِي لَهَب} أَيْ جُمْلَته وَعَبَّرَ عَنْهَا بِالْيَدَيْنِ مَجَازًا لِأَنَّ أَكْثَر الْأَفْعَال تُزَاوَل بِهِمَا وَهَذِهِ الْجُمْلَة دُعَاء {وَتَبَّ} خَسِرَ هُوَ

When the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – summoned his people and said, ‘I am a warner to you, standing before a terrible chastisement’, his uncle, Abu Lahab said, ‘May you perish! Is this what you have called us for?’, whereupon this verse was revealed: “May both the hands of Abu Lahab be destroyed” i.e. all of him — the use of ‘hands’ here is figurative to denote all of him, and it is because most actions are performed by hand; the statement is an invocation — “and perish he!”, i.e. may he be ruined!

 

Tafsir al-Jalalain of Imam Jalaaluddin Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Mahalli al-Shafe’i t D. 864 A.H. and Imam Jalaaluddin Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr al-Suyooti al-Shafe’i t D. 911 A.H.

 

Tafsir al-Durr al-Manthoor                                                                              تفسیر الدر المنثور

وَأخرج أَبُو نعيم فِي الدَّلَائِل عَن ابْن عَبَّاس قَالَ: مَا كَانَ أَبُو لَهب إِلَّا من كفار قُرَيْش مَا هُوَ حَتَّى خرج من الشّعب حِين تمالأت قُرَيْش حَتَّى حصرونا فِي الشّعب وظاهرهم فَلَمَّا خرج أَبُو لَهب من الشّعب وظاهرهم فَلَمَّا خرج أَبُو لَهب من الشّعب لَقِي هنداً بنت عتبَة بن ربيعَة حِين فَارق قومه فَقَالَ: يَا ابْنة عتبَة هَل نصرت اللات والعزى قَالَت: نعم فجزاك الله خيرا يَا أَبَا عتبَة

قَالَ: إِن مُحَمَّدًا يعدنا أَشْيَاء لَا نرَاهَا كائنة يزْعم أَنَّهَا كائنة بعد الْمَوْت فَمَا ذَاك وصنع فِي يَدي ثمَّ نفخ فِي يَدَيْهِ ثمَّ قَالَ: تَبًّا لَكمَا مَا أرى فيكما شَيْئا مِمَّا يَقُول مُحَمَّد فَنزلت {تبت يدا أبي لَهب}

Imam Abu Nu’aim mentioned in Dalaail from Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas – may Allah be pleased with them, he said:

Abu Lahab was one of the infidels of Quraish.  He even separated himself from She’b Abi Talib.  When Quraish showed their support towards one another and restricted us in She’b Abi Talib, he supported them.  When Abu Lahab came out of the She’b (valley) and helped them, he met Hinda bint ‘Utabah ibn Rabee’ah and said, “’O ‘Utabah’s daughter, did you help laat and ‘uzza (their gods)?”  She replied, “Yes”.  He said, “May Allah reward you, O ‘Utabah’s father.”

He said, “Indeed, Muhammad warns us about things we do not see happening, as he perhaps thinks that they will transpire after death.  What is it?”  He blew on his hands then said, “There is destruction for both of you for what I see that Muhammad (may Allah send peace and blessings upon him) says”, and then Surah Lahab was revealed.

 

Tafsir Al-Durr al-Manthoor Bi al-Tafsir al-Mathoor of Imam Jalaaluddin Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr al-Suyooti al-Shafe’i t D. 911 A.H.

 

Tafsir Rooh al-Bayaan                                                                                              تفسیر روح البیان

وذكر فى التأويلات الماتريدية انه كان كثير الإحسان الى رسول الله عليه السلام وكان يقول ان كان الأمر لمحمد فيكون لى عنده يدوان كان لقريش فلى عندها يد فاخبر أنها خسرت يده التي كانت عند محمد عليه السلام بعناده له ويده التي عند قريش ايضا لخسران قريش وهلاكهم فى يد محمد

It’s mentioned in Taweelat of Al-Matureedi that Abu Lahab was very good to the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – and used to say, “If there is an issue with Muhammad then I have my hand over him (in support) and if he has favours on Quraish then I am no stranger to this.  (When) Allah Almighty reprimanded him, whatever he had done for the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him, he has lost all due to his enmity, and the favours he had on Quraish, they have been lost due to their destruction.  (As a result of enmity with the beloved Prophet of Allah).

 

ولم يقل فى هذه السورة قل تبت إلخ لئلا يكون مشافها لعمه بالشتم والتغليظ وان شتمه عمه لان للعم حرمة كحرمة الأب لانه مبعوث رحمة للعالمين وله خلق عظيم فاجاب الله عنه

Allah Almighty did not mention, “Say” (i.e. to command the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – to curse his uncle Abu Lahab) in this Surah, so that the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – is not blamed for being insolent towards his uncle, although his uncle did not abstain from doing so, for the respect of uncle is like the respect of father.  The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – was sent as a Mercy unto the universe and had the greatest manners, therefore Allah Almighty responded on his behalf.

 

Tafsir Rooh al-Bayaan of Imam Isma’eel Haqqi ibn Mustafa al-Istanbuli Hanafi t D. 1127 A.H.

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