Download PDF: S113 V003 Tafseer of Ahlus Sunnah تفسیر اھل السنۃ

وَ مِنۡ شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ اِذَا وَقَبَ ۙ﴿۳﴾

“And from the evil of the matter that darkens when it sets.”

Tafsir al-Tabari                                                             تفسیر الطبری

وَمِنْ شَرِّ مُظْلِمٍ إِذَا دَخَلَ، وَهَجَمَ عَلَيْنَا بِظَلَامِهِ.

And from the evil of dusk when it enters and spreads its darkness over us.

 

عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ {وَمِنْ شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ} [الفلق: 3] قَالَ: «اللَّيْلُ»

Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas – may Allah be pleased with him – is reported to have commented on ‘And from the evil of the matter that darkens when it sets’, “It is the night.”

 

عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ كَعْبٍ: {وَمِنْ شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ} [الفلق: 3] قَالَ: هُوَ غُرُوبُ الشَّمْسِ إِذَا جَاءَ اللَّيْلُ، إِذَا وَقَبَ

Sayyiduna Muhammad ibn Ka’b – may Allah be pleased with him – is reported to have commented on ‘And from the evil of the matter that darkens when it sets’, “It is the sunset, when the night enters as it (the sun) sets.”

 

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ: أَخَذَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِيَدِي، ثُمَّ نَظَرَ إِلَى الْقَمَرِ، ثُمَّ قَالَ: «يَا عَائِشَةُ تَعَوَّذِي بِاللَّهِ مِنْ شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ، وَهَذَا غَاسِقٌ إِذَا وَقَبَ»

وَهَذَا لَفْظُ حَدِيثِ أَبِي كُرَيْبٍ وَابْنِ وَكِيعٍ. وَأَمَّا ابْنُ حُمَيْدٍ، فَأَنَّهُ قَالَ فِي حَدِيثِهِ: قَالَ أَخَذَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِيَدِي، فَقَالَ: «أَتَدْرِينَ أَيُّ شَيْءٍ هَذَاتَعَوَّذِي بِاللَّهِ مِنْ شَرِّ هَذَا، فَإِنَّ هَذَا الْغَاسِقُ إِذَا وَقَبَ»

Sayyidah Ayesha – may Allah be pleased with her – is reported to have said, “The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – held my hand then looked towards the moon and said, ‘O Ayesha, seek refuge in Allah from the evil of the matter that darkens when it sets, and this is the Ghaasiq when it sets’.”

These are the words of the Hadeeth narrated by Abu Kuraib and Ibn Wakee’, and as for the narration of Ibn Humaid, he says in his Hadeeth, “The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – held my hand and said, ‘Do you know what object this is?  Seek refuge in Allah from its evil, for this is the matter that causes darkness when it sets’.”

 

Tafsir Al-Tabari (Tafsir Ibn Jareer / Jame’ al-Bayaan fi Taweel al-Quraan) of Imam Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Jareer al-Tabri t D. 310 A.H.

 

Tafsir al-Matureedi                                            تفسیر الماتریدی                                

قيل: الغاسق: هو الليل المظلم: والغسق الظلمة.

It is said that it’s the dark night and Ghasaq means darkness.

 

Tafsir al-Matureedi (Taweel Ahl al-Sunnah) of Imam Abu Mansoor Muhammad Ibn Muhammad al-Matureedi t D. 333 A.H.

 

Tafsir al-Baghawi                                                        تفسیر البغوی

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ قَالَتْ: أَخَذَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِيَدِي فَنَظَرَ إِلَى الْقَمَرِ فَقَالَ: «يَا عَائِشَةُ اسْتَعِيذِي بِاللَّهِ مِنْ شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ، هَذَا غَاسِقٌ إِذَا وَقَبَ» .

Sayyidah Ayesha – may Allah be pleased with her – is reported to have said, “The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – held my hand then looked towards the moon and said, ‘O Ayesha, seek refuge in Allah from the evil of the matter that darkens when it sets, and this is the Ghaasiq when it sets’.”

وَقَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ: الْغَاسِقُ اللَّيْلُ إِذَا أَقْبَلَ بِظُلْمَتِهِ مِنَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَدَخَلَ فِي كل شيء وأظلم، والغسق الظُّلْمَةُ، يُقَالُ: غَسَقَ اللَّيْلُ وَأَغْسَقَ إِذَا أَظْلَمَ، وَهُوَ قَوْلُ الْحَسَنِ وَمُجَاهِدٍ

Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas – may Allah be pleased with him – said, “Ghaasiq is the night as it enters with its darkness from the east and spreads all over and it gets dark, and Ghasaq is darkness.  It is said, “غَسَقَ اللَّيْلُ وَأَغْسَقَ” when it gets dark, and it is the view of Sayyiduna Hasan and Mujahid – may Allah be pleased with them.

 

قَالَ مُقَاتِلٌ: يَعْنِي ظُلْمَةَ اللَّيْلِ إِذَا دَخَلَ سَوَادُهُ فِي ضَوْءِ النَّهَارِ.

Sayyiduna Muqatil – may Allah be pleased with him – said, “It means the darkness of night when its darkness penetrates the daylight.”

 

وَقِيلَ: سُمِّيَ اللَّيْلُ غَاسِقًا لِأَنَّهُ أَبْرَدُ مِنَ النَّهَارِ، وَالْغَسَقُ الْبَرْدُ.

It is also said that Ghaasiq is regarded as night because the night is colder compared to day, and Ghasaq is cold.

 

وَقَالَ ابْنُ زَيْدٍ: يَعْنِي الثُّرَيَّا إِذَا سَقَطَتْ. وَيُقَالُ: إِنَّ الْأَسْقَامَ تَكْثُرُ عِنْدَ وُقُوعِهَا وَتَرْتَفِعُ عِنْدَ طُلُوعِهَا.

Sayyiduna Ibn Zaid – may Allah be pleased with him – said, “It means when the Pleiades sets.”  It is also said that the diseases increase when that happens and when it appears, they disappear.

 

Tafsir al-Baghawi (Ma’aalim al-Tanzeel) of Muhiyy al-Sunnah Imam Abu Muhammad Al-Husain ibn Mas’ood al-Baghwi al-Shafe’I t D. 510 A.H.

 

Tafsir al-Kabeer                                                                                                 التفسیر الکبیر

ذَكَرُوا فِي الْغَاسِقِ وُجُوهًا أَحَدُهَا: أَنَّ الْغَاسِقَ هُوَ اللَّيْلُ إِذَا عَظُمَ ظَلَامُهُ مِنْ قَوْلِهِ: إِلى غَسَقِ اللَّيْلِ [الإسراء: 78]

There are a few interpretations in Ghaasiq:

  1. Al-Ghaasiq is the night when it gets significantly dark, which is derived from Allah’s words:

اِلٰی غَسَقِ الَّیۡلِ

Till the darkening of the night.

(Bani Isarel 17, Verse 78)

وَلِلْمُفَسِّرِينَ فِي الْآيَةِ أَقْوَالٌ:

The exegetists have different views in the interpretation of the verse:

أَحَدُهَا: أَنَّ الْغَاسِقَ إِذَا وَقَبَ هُوَ اللَّيْلُ إِذَا دَخَلَ، وَإِنَّمَا أَمَرَ أَنْ يُتَعَوَّذَ مِنْ شَرِّ اللَّيْلِ لِأَنَّ فِي اللَّيْلِ تَخْرُجُ السِّبَاعُ مِنْ آجَامِهَا وَالْهَوَامُّ مِنْ مَكَانِهَا، وَيَهْجُمُ السَّارِقُ وَالْمُكَابِرُ وَيَقَعُ الْحَرِيقُ وَيَقِلُّ فِيهِ الْغَوْثُ

وَقَالَ قَوْمٌ: إِنَّ فِي اللَّيْلِ تَنْتَشِرُ الْأَرْوَاحُ الْمُؤْذِيَةُ الْمُسَمَّاةُ بِالْجِنِّ وَالشَّيَاطِينِ، وَذَلِكَ لِأَنَّ قُوَّةَ شُعَاعِ الشَّمْسِ كَأَنَّهَا تَقْهَرُهُمْ، أَمَّا فِي اللَّيْلِ فَيَحْصُلُ لَهُمْ نَوْعُ اسْتِيلَاءٍ

  1. “The matter that darkens when it sets” is the night as it enters, and the reason why the Almighty commanded to seek refuge from the evil of the night is because it occurs during the night that the predators and harmful insects come out of their wilderness, the thieves and assailants are out to attack, fires are set and help is scarce.

A nation has said, “It is in the nights that the predatory souls amongst the humans and jinns are active, and for them, it appears as if the rays of the sun are an obstruction,  but during the night they have the freedom to act on their plots.

 

وَثَانِيهَا: أَنَّ الْغَاسِقَ إِذَا وَقَبَ هُوَ الْقَمَرُ، قَالَ ابْنُ قُتَيْبَةَ: الْغَاسِقُ الْقَمَرُ سُمِّيَ به لأنه يكسف فيغسق، أي يذهب ضوؤه ويسود، [و] وقوبه دُخُولُهُ فِي ذَلِكَ الِاسْوِدَادِ

رَوَى أَبُو سَلَمَةَ عَنْ عَائِشَةَ أَنَّهُ أَخَذَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِيَدِهَا وَأَشَارَ إِلَى الْقَمَرِ وَقَالَ:

اسْتَعِيذِي بِاللَّهِ مِنْ شَرِّ هَذَا فَإِنَّهُ الْغَاسِقُ إِذَا وَقَبَ

قَالَ ابْنُ قُتَيْبَةَ: وَمَعْنَى قَوْلِهِ: تَعَوَّذِي بِاللَّهِ مِنْ شَرِّهِ إِذَا وَقَبَ أَيْ إِذَا دَخَلَ فِي الْكُسُوفِ

وَعِنْدِي فِيهِ وَجْهٌ آخَرُ: وَهُوَ أَنَّهُ صَحَّ أَنَّ الْقَمَرَ فِي جِرْمِهِ غَيْرُ مُسْتَنِيرٍ بَلْ هُوَ مُظْلِمٌ، فَهَذَا هُوَ الْمُرَادُ مِنْ كَوْنِهِ غَاسِقًا، وَأَمَّا وُقُوبُهُ فَهُوَ انْمِحَاءُ نُورِهِ فِي آخِرِ الشَّهْرِ، وَالْمُنَجِّمُونَ يَقُولُونَ: إِنَّهُ فِي آخِرِ الشَّهْرِ يَكُونُ مَنْحُوسًا قَلِيلَ الْقُوَّةِ لِأَنَّهُ لَا يَزَالُ يَنْتَقِصُ نُورُهُ فَبِسَبَبِ ذَلِكَ تَزْدَادُ نُحُوسَتُهُ، وَلِذَلِكَ فَإِنَّ السَّحَرَةَ إِنَّمَا يَشْتَغِلُونَ بِالسِّحْرِ الْمُوَرِّثِ لِلتَّمْرِيضِ فِي هَذَا الْوَقْتِ، وَهَذَا مُنَاسِبٌ لِسَبَبِ نُزُولِ السُّورَةِ فَإِنَّهَا إِنَّمَا نَزَلَتْ لِأَجْلِ أَنَّهُمْ سَحَرُوا النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لِأَجْلِ التَّمْرِيضِ

  1. Indeed Al-Ghaasiq is the moon. Sayyiduna Ibn Qutaibah – may Allah be pleased with him – said, “The reason as to why the moon was named as such is because when it encounters eclipse, it gets dark i.e. its light is obscured as it gets dark.  The meaning of its setting is when it vanishes into darkness.

Sayyiduna Abu Samlah narrated from Sayyidah Ayesha – may Allah be pleased with them – that the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – held her hand and pointed towards the moon and said, “Seek refuge in Allah from this, for it is Al-Ghaasiq when it sets.”

Sayyiduna Ibn Qutaibah – may Allah be pleased with him – said, “The meaning of his statement, ‘Seek refuge in Allah from this, for it is Al-Ghaasiq when it sets’ i.e. when it is overcome by eclipse.

 

I have some other interpretations in this regard.  It is a fact that the moon by itself does not give light but it’s dark, and this is the meaning of it being Al-Ghaasiq (the dark matter).  And for the fact that it sets, it means the dissipation of its light towards the end of the month.  The astrologers hold the view that when it is towards the end of the month, it becomes bad luck with its strength reduced.  And as its light is gradually reduced, due to this reason, it increases in its misfortune.  It is for this reason that the magicians engage themselves during this time to do witchcraft which inflicts diseases.  This interpretation coincides with the reason due to which the Surah was revealed, for it was revealed because they did witchcraft to infect the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – with disease.

 

وَثَالِثُهَا: قَالَ ابْنُ زَيْدٍ: الْغَاسِقُ إِذَا وَقَبَ يَعْنِي الثُّرَيَّا إِذَا سَقَطَتْ قَالَ وَكَانَتِ الْأَسْقَامُ تَكْثُرُ عِنْدَ وُقُوعِهَا، وَتَرْتَفِعُ عِنْدَ طُلُوعِهَا، وَعَلَى هَذَا تُسَمَّى الثُّرَيَّا غَاسِقًا، لِانْصِبَابِهِ عِنْدَ وُقُوعِهِ فِي الْمَغْرِبِ، وَوُقُوبُهُ دُخُولُهُ تَحْتَ الْأَرْضِ وَغَيْبُوبَتُهُ عَنِ الْأَعْيُنِ

Sayyiduna Ibn Zaid – may Allah be pleased with him – said, “Al-Ghaasiq when it sets is the Pleiades when it disappears.”  He said that the diseases are on the rise during its disappearance and when it appears they decrease, based on this the Pleiades is named Al-Ghaasiq due to its disappearance when it sets in the west, and its disappearance occurs when it sets below the horizon and disappears from the eyes.

 

Tafsir al-Kabeer (Mafateeh al-Ghaib) of Imam Fakhruddin Muhammad ibn Umar al-Raazi al-Shafe’i t D. 606 A.H.

 

Tafsir al-Qurtubi                                                                                                                         تفسیر القرطبی

اخْتُلِفَ فِيهِ

Its interpretation varies (i.e. night, darkness, Pleiades, moonset or lunar eclipse etc.)

 

وَقِيلَ: الْغَاسِقُ: الْحَيَّةُ إِذَا لَدَغَتْ. وَكَأَنَّ الْغَاسِقَ نَابُهَا، لِأَنَّ السُّمَّ يَغْسِقُ مِنْهُ، أَيْ يَسِيلُ. وَوَقَبَ نَابُهَا: إِذَا دَخَلَ فِي اللَّدِيغِ.

It is also said that Al-Ghaasiq is the snake when it bites, as if the Al-Ghaasiq were its fangs because the venom in it i.e. flows through it, and “its disappearance” is its fangs when it sinks it into its victim.

 

Tafsir Qurbuti (Al-Jame’ Li Ahkaam al-Quran) Imam Shamsuddin Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Qurtubi t D. 671 A.H.

 

Tafsir al-Nasafi                                                                                                                                                      تفسیر النسفی

{وَمِن شَرّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ} الغاسق الليل إذا اعتكر ظلامه ووقوبه دخول ظلامه في كل شئ

وعن عائشة رضى الله عنها أخذ رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بيدي فأشار إلى القمر فقال تعوذي بالله من شر هذا فإنه الغاسق إذا وقب ووقو به دخوله في الكسوف واسوداده

Al-Ghaasiq is the night when its darkness is widespread, and its setting is the penetration of darkness in everything.

It is narrated from Sayyidah Ayesha – may Allah be pleased with her – that the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – held her hand and pointed towards the moon and said, “Seek refuge in Allah from the evil of this, for it is Al-Ghaasiq when it sets.”  And its setting means its disappearance during lunar eclipse and its darkness.

 

Tafsir al-Nasafi (Madarik al-Tanzeel) of Imam Abul Barakaat Abdullah ibn Ahmed al-Nasafi t D. 710 A.H.

 

Tafsir al-Jalalain                                                                                                                        تفسیر الجلالین

{وَمِنْ شَرّ غَاسِق إِذَا وَقَبَ} أَيْ اللَّيْل إِذَا أَظْلَمَ وَالْقَمَر إِذَا غَابَ

“And from the evil of the matter that darkens when it sets” i.e. the night when it gets dark, and the moon when it disappears.

 

Tafsir al-Jalalain of Imam Jalaaluddin Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Mahalli al-Shafe’i t D. 864 A.H. and Imam Jalaaluddin Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr al-Suyooti al-Shafe’i t D. 911 A.H.

 

Tafsir al-Durr al-Manthoor                                                                              تفسیر الدر المنثور

وَأخرج أَحْمد وَالتِّرْمِذِيّ وَابْن جرير وَابْن الْمُنْذر وَأَبُو الشَّيْخ فِي العظمة وَالْحَاكِم وَصَححهُ وَابْن مرْدَوَيْه عَن عَائِشَة قَالَت: نظر رَسُول الله صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم يَوْمًا إِلَى الْقَمَر لما طلع فَقَالَ يَا عَائِشَة اسْتَعِيذِي بِاللَّه من شَرّ هَذَا فَإِن هَذَا الْغَاسِق إِذا وَقب

Imam Ahmad, Tirmidhi, Ibn Jareer, Ibn al-Mundhir, Abu al-Shaikh in Al-‘Azmah, Hakim – he verified it as authentic, and Ibn Mardawaih:

Sayyidah Ayesha – may Allah be pleased with her – is reported to have said that one day the Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – was looking towards the moon when it appeared and He said: “O Ayesha, seek refuge in Allah from its evil for this is Al-Ghaasiq when it sets.”

وَأخرج ابْن جرير وَأَبُو الشَّيْخ وَابْن مرْدَوَيْه عَن أبي هُرَيْرَة عَن النَّبِي صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم فِي قَوْله: {وَمن شَرّ غَاسِق إِذا وَقب} قَالَ: النَّجْم هُوَ الْغَاسِق وَهُوَ الثريا

Imam Ibn Jareer, Abu al-Shaikh, Ibn Mardawaih:

Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah – may Allah be pleased with them – is reported to have commented concerning Allah’s statement, ‘And from the evil of the matter that darkens when it sets’, “It is the star Al-Ghaasiq, and that is Pleiades.”

 

وَأخرج ابْن جرير وَأَبُو الشَّيْخ عَن ابْن زيد فِي قَوْله: {وَمن شَرّ غَاسِق إِذا وَقب} قَالَ: كَانَت الْعَرَب تَقول الْغَاسِق سُقُوط الثريا وَكَانَت الأسقام والطواعين تكْثر عِنْد وُقُوعهَا وترتفع عِنْد طُلُوعهَا

Imam Ibn Jareer and Abu al-Shaikh:

Sayyiduna Ibn Zaid is reported to have commented on Allah’s statement, ‘And from the evil of the matter that darkens when it sets’, “The Arabs used to say that Al-Ghaasiq is the disappearance of the Pleiades, and that the plagues and diseases are on rise when this happens, and they vanish when it appears.

 

وَأخرج ابْن جرير وَابْن الْمُنْذر عَن مُجَاهِد رَضِي الله عَنهُ {غَاسِق إِذا وَقب} قَالَ: اللَّيْل إِذا دخل

Imam Ibn Jareer and Ibn al-Mundhir:

Sayyiduna Mujahid – may Allah be pleased with them – is reported to have commented on ‘And from the evil of the matter that darkens when it sets’, “It’s the night when it enters.”

 

Tafsir Al-Durr al-Manthoor Bi al-Tafsir al-Mathoor of Imam Jalaaluddin Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr al-Suyooti al-Shafe’i t D. 911 A.H.

 

Tafsir Rooh al-Bayaan                                                                                              تفسیر روح البیان

نهى رسول الله عليه السلام عن السير فى أول الليل وامر بتغطية الأواني وإغلاق الأبواب وإيكاء الاسقية وضم الصبيان

وكل ذلك للحذر من الشر والبلاء

The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – has prohibited traveling in the first portion of the night and instructed to cover the pots, close the doors, tie the openings of the water-skins and to prevent the children from going out.

And these precautionary measures are taken to avoid the evil and calamities.

 

وقيل الغاسق القمر إذا امتلأ ووقوبه دخوله فى الخسوف واسوداده لما روى عن عائشة رضى الله عنها انها قالت أخذ رسول الله عليه السلام بيدي فاشار الى القمر فقال تعوذى بالله من شر هذا فانه الغاسق إذا وقب وشره الذي يتقى ما يكون فى الأبدان كآفات التي تحدث بسببه ويكون فى الأديان كالفتنة التي بها افتتن من عبده وعبد الشمس

It is said that Al-Ghaasiq is the moon and its setting could be interpreted as its disappearance in lunar eclipse, due to the Hadeeth where Sayyidah Ayesha – may Allah be pleased with her – is reported to have said, “The Holy Prophet – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – held my hand and pointed towards the moon and said, ‘Seek refuge in Allah from its evil, for it is Al-Ghaasiq when it sets’.”  And one must avoid its evil which penetrates the body i.e. the calamities which are originated from it, and it also penetrates the religious domains due to which the sun-worshippers got involved in the worship of the sun.

 

Tafsir Rooh al-Bayaan of Imam Isma’eel Haqqi ibn Mustafa al-Istanbuli Hanafi t D. 1127 A.H.

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